child psych

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Author:
jadki1582
ID:
228873
Filename:
child psych
Updated:
2013-08-01 17:56:33
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chapter2
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vocabulary
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  1. Zygote is...
    The single cell formed from separate sperm and egg cells at conception.
  2. Ovum is...
    The cell released monthly from a woman's ovaries, which, if fertilized, forms the basis for the developing organism.
  3. Fallopian tube is...
    The tube between the ovary and the uterus down which the ovum travels to the uterus and in which conception usually occurs.
  4. Uterus is...
    The female organ in which the embro/fetus develops (popularly referred to as the womb.)
  5. Sperm is...
    The cells produced in a man's testes that may fertilize an ovum following intercourse.
  6. Chromosomes are...
    The structures, arrayed in 23 pairs, within each cell in the body that contain genetic information. Each chromosome is made up of many segments, called genes.
  7. Gametes are...
    Sperm and ova. These cells, unlike all other cells of the body, contain only 23 chromosomes rather than 23 pairs. Also called germ cells.
  8. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is...
    The chemical of which chromosomes are composed.
  9. Gene is...
    A uniquely coded segment of DNA in a chromosome that affects one or more specific body processes or developments.
  10. Homozygous is...
    Term describing the genetic pattern when the two genes in the pair at any given genetic locus both carry the same instructions.
  11. Heterozygous is...
    Term describing the genetic pattern when the two genes in the pair at any given genetic lucus carry different instructions, such as a gen for blue eyes from one parent and a gene for brown eyes from the other parent.
  12. Genotype is...
    The pattern of characteristics and developmental sequences mapped in the genes of an specific individual, which will be modified by individual experience into the phenotype.
  13. Phenotype is...
    The expression of a particular set of genetic information in a specific environment; the observable result of the joint operation of genetic and environmental influences.
  14. Androgens are...
    Hormones that cause male genitalia to develop.
  15. Dominant/recessive pattern of inheritance is...
    The pattern of genetic transmission in which a single dominant gene influences a person's phenotype, but an individual must have two recessive genes to express a recessive trait.
  16. Polygenic pattern of inheritance is...
    Any pattern of genetic transmission in which multiple genes contribute to the outcome, such as is presumed to occur for complex traits such as intelligence or temperament.
  17. Multifactorial pattern of inheritance is...
    The pattern of genetic transmission in which both genes and environment influence the phenotype.
  18. Genomic imprinting is...
    Some genes are biochemically marked at the time ova and sperm develop in the bodies of potential mothers and fathers.
  19. Mitochondrial inheritance is...
    When children inherit genes located outside the nucleus of the zygote from the mitochondria and is only passed from mother to child.
  20. Fraternal (dizygotic) twins are...
    Children carried in the same pregnancy but who develop from two separately fertilized ova. They are no more alike genetically than other pairs of siblings.
  21. Identical (monozygotic) twins are...
    Children carried in the same pregnancy who develop from the same fertilized ovum. They are genetic clones of each other.
  22. Germinal stage is...
    The first stage of prenatal development, beginning at conception and ending at implantation of the zygote in the uterus (approximately the first 2 weeks.)
  23. Blastocyst is...
    Name for the mass of cells from roughly 4 to 10 days after fertilization.
  24. Embryo is...
    The name given to the developing organism during the period of prenatal development between about 2 weeks and 8 weeks after conception, beginning with implantation of the blastocyst in the uterine wall.
  25. Embryonic stage is...
    The second stage of prenatal development, from week 2 through week 8, when the embryo's organs form.
  26. Amnion is...
    The sac, or bag, filled with liquid in which the embryo/fetus floats during prenatal life.
  27. Chorion is...
    The outer layer of cells of the blastocyst during prenatal development, from which both the placenta and the umbilical cord are formed.
  28. Placenta is...
    An organ that develops between the fetus and the wall of the uterus during gestation.
  29. Umbilical cord is...
    The cord connecting the embryo/fetus to the placenta, containing two arteries and one vein.
  30. Fetus is...
    The name given to the developing organism from about 8 weeks after conception until birth.
  31. Fetal stage is...
    The third stage of prenatal development, from week 8 to birth, when growth and organ refinement take place.
  32. Viability is...
    The fetus's capacity for survival outside the womb.
  33. Neurons are...
    The cells in the nervous system that are responsible for transmission and reception of nerve impulses.
  34. Neuronal proliferation is...
    The rapid development of neurons between the 10th and 18th week of gestation.
  35. Neuronal migration is...
    The movement of neurons to specialized regions of the brain.
  36. Cell body is...
    The part of the cell that contains the nucleus and in which all the cell's vital functions are carried out.
  37. Synapsis is...
    Tiny spaces across which neural impulses flow from one neuron to the next.
  38. Axons are...
    Tail-like extensions of neurons.
  39. Dendrites are...
    Branchlike protrusions from the cell bodies of neurons.
  40. Glial cells are...
    The "glue" that holds neurons together to give form to the structures of the nervous system.
  41. Teratogens are...
    Substances such as viruses and drugs or events that can cause birth defects.
  42. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is...
    A pattern of abnormalities, including mental retardation and minor physical anomalies, often found in children born to alcoholic mothers.

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