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the attitude(s) toward the subject and audience implied in a literary
word choice, or the use of words in oral or written discourse.
Diction:diction consists of vocabulary (words one at a time) and syntax (patterns of arrangement).
An argument attacking an individual’s character
rather than his or her position on an issue.
A literary work in which characters, objects,
or actions represent abstractions.
The repetition of initial sounds in successive
A reference to something literary,
mythological, or historical.
A brief personal narrative which focuses on a
particular incident or event.
A comparison between two different things
which are similar in some way.
The repetition of words or phrases at the
beginning of consecutive lines or sentences.
A statement in which two opposing ideas are
A concise statement which expresses succinctly
a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance.
The act of speaking directly to an absent or
imaginary person, or to some abstraction.
A statement consisting of two parallel parts
in which the second part is structurally reversed.
Informal words or expressions not usually acceptable
in formal writing. Slang,
contractions, and lively conversational rhythms.
A fanciful, particularly clever extended
metaphor. The term designates fanciful notions and may be a brief metaphor or
the framework of an entire poem.
The implied or associative meaning of a word. It must be shared to be intelligible to
others and depends on usage and a particular linguistic community and climate.
The literal meaning of a word, independent of its emotional coloration or associations.
needs the rest of the sentence (the independent, or main, clause) for
the full impact of its meaning to be felt.
having to do with the words choices made by a
writer: plain or fancy; archaic or current.
Something which has as its primary purpose to teach or instruct.
The omission of a word or phrase which is
grammatically necessary but can be deduced from the text.
A moment of sudden revelation or insight.
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered
In literature, the term is applied to any person who, through contrast,
underscores the distinctive characteristics of another.
A major category
or type of literature:western, mystery, romance.
exaggeration to create an effect.
Concrete, sensory details which contribute to the themes or ideas of a work
makes sense by itself and could make it as a separate sentence.
An intensely vehement, highly emotional verbal attack.
A situation or statement where the truth is
the opposite of appearances.
A type of understatement in which something
affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite.
A direct comparison of two different things which suggests they are somehow
Substituting the name of one object for another closely associated with
A standard theme or dramatic situation which recurs in various works.
An inference that does not logically follow from the premise(s).
A word formed by the imitation of natural sounds. Hiss, Buzz, Whirr, Sizzle.
An expression in which two words that
contradict each other are joined.
An apparently contradictory statement which actually contains
A humorous imitation of a serious work.
The quality in a work that prompts the reader
to feel pity or sorrow.
Describing an excessive display of learning or
One that is not grammatically complete before its end; effective because
it holds an idea in suspense before its final revelation.
Endowing non-human objects or creatures with
human qualities or characteristics.
A play on words based on the similarity of sound between two words with
A question proposed for its persuasive effect and not requiring a reply or intended to induce a
Harsh, cutting language/tone designed to ridicule.
The use of humor to emphasize human weaknesses
or imperfections in social institutions.
The linking of one word with two other words
in two strikingly different ways.
A logical argument in which a conclusion is
based on a major premise and a minor premise.
An object which is something in itself yet is
used to represent something else.
Using one part of an object to represent the
The overall manner in which an individual
writer expresses idea.
The manner in which words are arranged by a writer into sentences.
Needless repetition which adds no meaning or
The deliberate representation of something as
less in magnitude than it really is.