Application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to meet project requirements.
How many groups in PMP?
4. Monitoring and Controlling
How many Knowledge Areas and Project Management Processes?
There are 10 Knowledge Areas and 47 processes.
Managing a Project requires...
2. Managing Stakeholders
4. Balancing Constrains
List the Knowledge Areas?
Remember: ISaw The Cat Quit His Cigar, Roll, Pause and Snap
1. Project Integration Management
2. Project Scope Management
3. Project Time Management
4. Project Cost Management
5. Project Quality Management
6. Project Human Resources Management
7. Project Communication Management
8. Project Risk Management
9. Project Procurement Management
10. Project Stakeholder Management
What is value?
It compares Cost against Benefit.
What is the cost of Project Management?
It take time and effort to proactively manage a projec
What is the Benefit of Project Management?
1. Complete project quick and cheap
2. Value of re-use
3. Reduce project start-up time
4. Short learning curve for Project Team members and time savings
What is the Project Manager role?
To lead the team responsible for achieving project objectives
Mention the Project Manager's competencies.
Knowledge (knowledge about PM)
Performance (able to accomplish)
Personal (PM's behavior)
Techniques of Project Management
Science: relies on proven and repeatable processes and techniques to achieve project success
Art: involves managing and relating to people and requires the PM to apply intuitive skills in unique situations.
Methodology: increase the odds of being successful and provides framework, processes, guidelines and techniques to manage people.
What are the roles on a project?
3. Project Team
5. Project Manager
Define Customer role.
who will approve and manage the project's product, service or result
Define Sponsor role.
who provide resources and support, is accountable for enabling sucess
Define project team role.
individuals who support the PM in performing the work to achieve project objectives
Define Stakeholder role.
anyone who may affect, be affected by or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity or outcome of the project
processes performed to define a new project or new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to the project or phase
processes required to establish scope, refine objectives, and define course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve
Process performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications
Define Monitoring and Controlling
1. Processes to track, review and regulate the progress and performance of the project.
2. Identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required and initiate the corresponding changes.
Process of finalizing all activities to formally complete a project or phase.
What is the Triple Constraints
Scope (most important)
Which Questions Scope Management answers?
What needs to be completed?
What is the purpose of Scope Management
Ensures that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required to complete the work.
What is the purpose of Time Management (schedule)?
Manage the time completion of the project.
What question Time Management (schedule) answers?
How long will the work take?
What is the purpose of Cost management (budget)?
planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling cost so project can be completed as schedule.
What Question Cost Management (budget) answers?
How much will the work cost?
What is included in Project Constraints?
proejct cisntraints include but are not limited to:
Who is responsible for managing project constraints?
The Project Manager.
What question Quality Management answers?
How "good" does it has to be?
What is the purpose of Quality Management?
project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.
What is the purpose of Human Resource Management?
Organized, lead, and manage the project team.
What question Human Resources Management answers?
Who will do what work?
What is the Purpose of Communication management?
timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring and the ultimate disposition of project information.
What question Communication Management answers?
What is going to happen?
What will happen?
What is the purpose of Risk Management?
Risk Management planning, identification, analysis, response planning and controlling risk on a project.
What question Risk Management answers?
What might happen?
What is the purpose of Procurement Management?
Purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team
What question Procurement management answers?
How do we get what we need?
What is the purpose of Integration Management?
Identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes within the project management process groups.
What question Integration Management answers?
How do all the pieces fit together?
Mention the Analytical Thinking/Problem Solving Competencies
1. creating thinking
2. decision making
4. problem solving
5. systems thinking
Mention the Behavioral Characteristics competencies
2. personal organization
4. relationship management
Mention the Business Knowledge competencies
1. business principals and knowledge
2. industry knowledge
3. organization knowledge
4. solution knowledge
Mention the Communication Skills competencies
1. Oral Communication
2. Active Listening
4. Written Communication
Mention the Interaction Skills competencies
1. facilitation and negotiation
2. leadership and influencing
4. Conflict resolution
Mention the Software Applications competencies
1. General Purpose Applications
2. Specialized Applications
What question Project Management answers?
What to do to manage the project?
Define Project Life Cycle
answers the question, what to do to get the work finished
A project has its own life cycle to complete the project, it has an specific timeline
depends of the organization's control needs and preference defined in the project execution methodology
Define Product Life Cycle
Starts with conception of the product and goesuntil it withdrawsfrom the market when it becomes obsolete
A product can required or spawn many projects over its life cycle
the development phase may use SDLC
it has dynamic timeline
what SDLC stands for?
Solution or System
1 Is a model for developing and acquiring a solution which includes both developed and purchased solutions.
2. Operateswith the project life cycle.
3. Specifieshow organizations obtains and manages technical solutions in support of the organization's strategic direction
Characteristics of Project life Cycle and SDLC
Project life cycle is a framework for describing the phases involved in the developing and implementing a project
SDLC typically aligns with phases of the project life cycle, but the activities and tasks within the phases, and the sequence of the phases, may differ
Types of Project Life Cycles
Predictive - Project scope, time and cost required to deliver that scope are determine as early as possible.
Iterative & Incremental - project phases are intentionally repeated activities as project teams understanding of product increases.
Adaptive - response to high levels of change and ongoing stakeholder involvement by having iterations that are rapid and fixed in time and cost.
Predictive PM Life Cycles
Sample: SDLC waterfall, you will always get sign off before moving to the next phase
Iterative & Incremental PM Cycle
Sample: Agile - emphasis is on values and principles, rather than on processes.
Sample of Adaptive PM Life Cycle
Lean Project Management
Critical Chain Project Management
Extreme Project Management
1. Condition or capability required to be present in a product, service or result to satisfy a contract or formally imposed specification.
2. Condition or capability needed by a stakeholder to solve a problem or achieve objective.
3. Documentedrepresentation of a condition or capability. If its not documented it does not exist.
What question Requirements answer?
What need to be completed?
Characteristics of Requirements
It reflect what the business needs.
Do not specify the technology that should be used to design and develop a solution
Levels of Requirements
Regulatory - mandated by a third party.
Business - goals expected to be achieved.
User - needed by a stakeholder to solve a problem or achieve an objective.
Solution - Describes the technology, independent behaviors and information needed by the solution
Types of solution Requirements
Functional - the product capabilities or thing the product must do for its users.
Nonfunctional (quality of service) - The quality attributes, design and implementation constraints, and external interfaces that the product must have.
Transition - A classification of requirements that describe capabilities that the solution must have in order to facilitate transition from current state of the enterprise to the desired future state, but that it will not be needed once the transition is completed.
What are Business Rules?
Obligations concerning actions, processes, and procedures that define and possibly constrain some aspects of the business. May be in the form of:
Explain Business Rules vs. Requirements
Business Rules - they exist independently of the proposed solution or opportunity.They also, constrain processes and drive requirements.
Requirements - are characteristics of the solution and describe it directly
What are Specifications?
It answers the question "How?" and is the description of the technology-specific details for a material, product, or service, includingthe criteria for determining the requirements have been met.
Explain: Requirements vs Specifications
1. Answers who, what, where, when, how often, and how much is needed to solve the problem
2. Describes performance, no technology
3. Concerned with process and behavior
1. Answers how we will solve the problem
2. Describes a technical solution
3. Concerned with physical architecture and infrastructure
How are requirements discovered?
Objective - Requirements Analysis
Purpose - Analyzed data
Value - Transformed the business need into clearly describes capabilities
Inputs - Business Needs, Product Scope, Business Case, Stakeholders, Requirements, Work Plan, Stakeholders' Concerns
Answers the question " What must the product do?"
Mention the steps of the Requirements Analysis Process
Specify and Model Requirements
Define Assumptions and Constrains
Reflect a desired understanding of how deliverable are to be achieve.
Believe to be true but not yet confirmed.
If not true, assumptions represent a risk and must be documented and monitor carefully.
Assumptions are NOT requirements.
When is Optimal Quality reached?
Is reached when the incremental revenue from improvement equals the incremental cost of implement.
Describe a V-Model of Testing
1. Is a tool to plan all levels of testing
2. Illustrate relationship between solution, development, validation and verification.
3. Ensures all tests can be track back to the developed documentation during requirements gathering
What the PMBOK is not!
It is NOT a methodology
It is NOT a "How to do" project
What is a project?
A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.
What is project management?
The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements
What is a program?
1. A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing individually
2. A project may or may not be part of a program but a program will always have multiple projects.
What is program management?
Focuses on the project inter-dependencies and helps determine the optimal approach for managing them.
What is a Portfolio?
1. A collection of projects or programs group together to facilitate effective management to meet strategic business objectives
2. Project or Programs of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependence or directly related.
What is portfolio management?
Is the centralized management of one or more portfolios. This includes identifying, prioritizing, authorizing, managing and controlling projects and programs to achieve business objectives.
What is a Project management office (PMO)?
1. Its a specific type of body within an organization.
Mention PMO Roles
1. Provides policies, methodology, tools and templates
2. Provide support and training to other in the organization
3. Provide Project Managers for projects
Mention the PMO functions
1. Coordinating communication across projects
2. Managing interdependencies between projects
3. Selecting and managing shared or dedicated project resources
4. Terminating projects
Metion the different types of PMO Structures
as a project repository
b. Control is low
a. provides support and require compliance
b. control moderate
a. directly managing projects
b. control hing
Define Organizational Process Assets (OPA)
An organization plans, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases.
1. Identifying both internal and external stakeholders
2. Determining Stakeholder requirements
3. Determining stakeholder expectations
4. Communicating with Stakeholders
WHAT IS QUALITY?
The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements
WHO DEFINES QUALITY?
Who is responsible for the organization's quality?
What is the quality baseline form which the project team develops quality standards?
What is determined by Quality Planning?
The Quality Plan.
What is a major task in quality planning?
The preparation of the Quality Management Plan.
What is determined by the Quality Assurance?
if the project is complying with the organizational ( as well as project) policies and procedures.
What is a major task for Quality Assurance?
Conducting regular project audits, results of the audits are corrective or prevention actions
What Quality Control does?
It measures specific results (product) againts standards.
What is a mayor activity for Quality Control?
Inspect and verify the project's product, defect repairs and measuring whether the quality indicators are improving or not.
When is Optimal Quality reached?
When the incremental revenue from improvement equals = the incremental cost of implement.
What is the Cost of Quality?
Cost of Quality = Cost of Conformance + Cost of Non Conformance
Note: By Crosby
Samples of Cost of Conformance
1. Quality Training
4. Any money spend during the project to avoid failures
Samples of Cost of Non-Conformance
2. Scrap (waste)
3. Warranty Cost
4. Money spend during and after the project because of failures
Plan Quality Management Process is completed during the ____________.
1. Planning and Process group.
Perform Quality Assurance processes is completed during __________.
1. Executing group.
Control Quality process is completed during the ____________.
1. Controlling and Monitoring group.
Mention the 7 basic quality tools
1. Cause and Effect Diagram
3. Check Sheets
4. Pareto Diagram
6. Control Charts
7. Scatter Diagram
Who created the Fishbone Diagram?
what is the Fishbone (Ishikawa) Diagram use for?
1. Used to find the root cause of a defect
2. Stimulates thinking and organized thoughts
3. Used in quality planning and quality control
What is Flowchart?
A diagram that uses graphic symbols to depict the nature and flow of the steps in a process
What is a Flowchart use for?
1. Promote process understanding
Provide tool for training
2. Identify problem areas and improvement opportunities
What is a Pareto Chart?
Bar Chart arranged in descending order from leftto right
What is the 80/20 Rule?
Suggested by Joseph Duran and based on thePareto Principal. The rule states that 80% of the outcome can be attribute to 20% of the causes for a given event
What is the Pareto Chart use for?
1. breaks big problems into smaller pieces
2. Identifies most significant factors
3. Shows where to focus efforts
4. Allows better use of limit resources
What is a Histogram?
1. A bar (vertical) graphs that shows thedistribution of the data
2. A snapshot of data taken from a process
What is a Histogram used for?
1. summarized large set of data graphically
2. Compare measurements to specifications
3. Assist in decision making
What is a Control Chart?
A graph showing is the process is within acceptable limits
What is the Control Chart use for?
To monitor performance figures such as cost or schedule variance.
What is a Scatter Diagram?
Is a plotted graph used to study and identify the possible relationship between the chages observed in 2 different sets of variables
What is the Normal Distribution?
1. Also known as Bell Curve or Gaussian distribution
What is the Mean and Standard Deviation?
1. Standard deviation is used to measure how far the data is from the mean.
Define Attribute Sampling.
Methods of measuring that consist of noting the presence (or absent) of some characteristic (or attribute) in each of the units under consideration. After each unit is inspected the decision is made to accept the lot, reject it or inspect another unit.
Note: this also applies to process's outputs.
Who was Philip Bayard "Phil" Crosby?
Businessman and author who contributed to management theory and quality management practices. "Quality is Free"
1. Quality is conformance to requirements
2. Quality comes from prevention - not detection
3. The standard for Quality is Zero-Defect
4. Quality is measured by the price of non-conformance
Who was Joseph Moses Juran?
1. Dr. Juran was the first to incorporate the human aspect of quality management which is referred to as Total Quality Management.
2. The Pareto principle application to Quality management, the need for widespread training in quality, the definition of quality as fitness for use, the project-by-project approach to quality improvement
Define Project Cost Management
Processes involved in estimating, budgeting, and controlling cost so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.
Define Cost Management Plan
Plan contains details like how to go about planning the project cost and how to effectively manage and control the project cost baseline and variances.
Samples of Cost Management techniques
1. Expert Judgment
2. Analogous estimating
3. Bottom up estimating
4. Reserve Analysis
What is McGregor's Theory?
All workers fit into 2 categories:
1. Theory X: people should be watched every minute. People avoid work whenever possible. Managers don't trust their employees.
Example: Construction workers
2. Theory Y: People are willing to work without supervision and they want to do achieve something. Managers emphasize trust and participation.
Example, employees work to gain something for themselves like a bonus, a raised, or promotion
What is Ouchi's Theory?
Theory Z, refers to a system where employees focus on the higher levels goals of the organization and much less on individuals needs.
Example, for the greater good - Google employees
what is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
People has baggage and personal issues that will affect their performance.
A person stage of self-actualization is brief.
Why is a "Collective bargain agreements a constrain?
Collective bargain agreements relates to negotiation
For example; Union negotiations, these are constrains that need to be monitored and deal with in a project.
What is Risk?
or condition that can have a positive or negative effect on project objectives
Types of Risk
1. Positive - Opportunity
2. Negative - Threat
1. Risk Event
2. Probability that it will occur
3. Impact on objectives
What is Risk Management?
1. Controlling Risk
2. Processes, Techniques, and Tools for managing risks
a. Identify Risk
b. Assessing Probability and Impact
c. Planning and implementing response strategies
3. Level of effort = level of Risk and importance of project
1. Exploit - eliminitate uncertainty by changing project’s objective, schedule or budget
2. Share - with third party
3. Enhance - do to make it happen
4. Accept - ok if it happens
1. Avoid - before it happens
2. Transfer - third party (insurance, outsource)
3. Mitigate - after it happens
4. Accept - can't be avoided, deal with consequences