Danish Grammar

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Author:
gitte
ID:
228926
Filename:
Danish Grammar
Updated:
2013-08-13 16:27:32
Tags:
danish
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Description:
some rules
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  1. tænke vs. synes vs. tror vs. forstille sig
    jeg tænker på:
    jeg synes:
    jeg tror:
    jeg forstille mig:
    • jeg tænker på: I think (exercise the mind) 
    • jeg synes: I think (opinion) 
    • jeg tror: I think (believe) 
    • jeg forstille mig: I think (imagine, have formed a conception of)
  2. da vs. når
    da:
    når:
    • da: when (a single occasion in the past) 
    • når: when (repeated occasions, also in present and future)
  3. som vs der
    som:
    der:
    • som: who, which and that 
    • der: who, which and that

    • som can always be used and der can only be used if it acts as the subject of the phrase it is part of
    • “Det er Karen, der har fortalt mig det”

    • “Det er et syn, som jeg aldrig glemmer” 
    • eller
    • “Det er et syn, jeg aldrig glemmer”
  4. kende vs. ved
    at kende:
    at vide:
    • at kende: to know (be acquainted with) 
    • at vide: to know (a fact)
  5. Ubestemt - undecided-> "a car"
    • en bil.........en stor bil
    • to biler.......to store biler

    • et hus........et stort hus
    • to huser.....to store huse
  6. Bestemt- decided-> "the car"
    • bilen..................bilerne
    • den store bil.......de storte biler

    • huset.................husene
    • det store hus.......de store huse
  7. articles for a noun with "en" (gender feminine and masculine)
    • en bil.........en stor bil
    • to biler.......to store biler

    • bilen..................bilerne
    • den store bil.......de storte biler
  8. articles for a noun with "et" (gender feminine and masculine)
    • et hus........et stort hus 
    • to huser.....to store huse

    • huset.................husene
    • det store hus.......de store huse
  9. Han=
    Hun=

    Ham= 
    Hende=

    Hans=
    Hendes=
    • Han= him (subject)
    • Hun= her (subject)

    • Ham= him (object)
    • Hende= her (object)

    • Hans= his (Hans bog)
    • Hendes= her (Hendes bog)

    • Pamela elsker hendes køkken.
    • Pamela loves her (someone else's) kitchen.

    • Pamela elsker sit køkken.
    • Pamela loves her (own) kitchen.
  10. Jeg=
    Du=

    min/ mit/ mine=
    din/ dit/ dine=

    min/ mit/ mine=
    din/ dit/ dine=
    sin/ sit/ sine=
    • Jeg= I (subject)
    • Du= you (subject)

    • min/ mit/ mine= mine (object)
    • din/ dit/ dine= yours (object)

    • Havet er min. 
    • Kokken er mit.
    • Venner er mine.

    • min/ mit/ mine= my (genetive- possessive)
    • din/ dit/ dine= your (genetive- possessive)
    • sin/ sit/ sine= her or his, when supporting the subject

    • min have (en have)
    • mit køkken (et køkken)
    • mine venner (plural)

    • Pamela elsker sit køkken.
    • Pamela loves her (own) kitchen.
  11. Vi=
    I=
    De=

    os=
    jer=
    dem=

    vores=
    jeres=
    deres=
    • vi=we (subject)
    • I=you (pl) (subject)
    • de=they (subject)

    • os= us (object)
    • jer= you/ yourselves (pl) (object)
    • dem= them (object)

    "bogen er vores"

    • vores= our(s) (genetive- possessive)
    • jeres= your(s) (genetive- possessive)
    • deres=their(s) (genetive- possessive)

    "vores bog er tyk"
  12. det/ den=

    det/ den=

    dets/ dens=
    det/ den= it (subject)

    • et bord-> det
    • en bog-> den

    det/ den= it (object)

    • Den ligge pà bordet-> It (the book) lies on
    • the table.
    • Det er sort -> It (the table) is black.

    • dets/ dens= its' (genetive- possessive)
    • Dens sider er tynd-> It's (the book's) pages
    • are thin.
  13. mig=
    dig=
    sig=
    os=
    jer=
    • mig=myself
    • dig=yourself
    • sig=himself, herself, itself, themselves
    • os=ourselves 
    • jer=yourselves
  14. modal verbs

    at kunne=
    at matte=
    at ville=
    at skulle=
    • at kunne-> Det kan jeg gøre : That can I do.
    • at matte-> Det mà jeg gøre : That may I do.
    • at ville-> Det vil jeg gøre : That will I do.
    • at skulle-> Det skal jeg gøre : That must I do.
  15. other auxiliary verbs
    • at burde-> __________ : 
    • at turde-> __________ : 
  16. skulle + infinitive verb
    kunne + infinitive verb
    • Jeg skulle ikke sige-> I shouldn't say
    • Jeg skulle studere Dansk-> I should study Danish

    • Jeg kunne ikke sige-> I couldn't say
    • Jeg kunne studere Dansk-> I could study Danish
  17. future tense
    use present tense and context;

    Jeg ringer lige til ham-> I'll give him a ring

    Jeg kommer i morn-> I will come tomorrow.

    Jeg køber nogle aebler, nàr jeg er i byen. -> I will buy apples when I am in town.
  18. many, more, most
    Can count the things:

    • positiv:       mange... many
    • komarativ:  flere.......more
    • superlativ:  flest........most

    Cannot count:

    • positiv:       meget... a lot, much
    • komarativ:  mere.......more
    • superlativ:  mest........most
  19. lægge vs ligge
    • lægge: to lay (dynamic)
    • Han lægge bogen på stolen.

    • ligge: to lay (passiv)
    • Bogen ligge på stolen.
  20. possessive pronouns:
    • min/mit/mine= my
    • dine/dit/dine= your
    • hans=his (his kitchen)
    • hendes=her (her kitchen)
    • dens, dets=its
    • vores=ours
    • jeres=your
    • deres=their

    • Pronouns
    • En bog -> med den
  21. havde vs. få
    • havde: have : means to be in possession of -> Jeg har en
    • bog : I have a book.

    • : have : means to come into possession of -> Jeg fik en
    • bog : I got a book.

     

    to have in connection with and drink will use “få”

     

    • Jeg fik (or drak) en kop café 
    • -> I had a cup of coffee (I drank it)

    • Jeg havde en kop café -> I had a cup of coffee (I was in
    • possession of it- where did you put it?)

     
  22. er ved at gøre vs.
    gør
    • Hun skrive en bog ->
    • she writes a book

    • Hun er ved at skrive en
    • bog -> she is ‘in the process of writing a book”
  23. så – two meanings
    • så = so/ therefore
    • -> så vi matte : so we must

     

    • så = then -> så
    • gik vi en tur : then we went on a walk

    • * must invert verb in
    • this case
  24. at vs. som vs. der
    • som -> that -> Katen
    • som jeg har købt.

    • der ->  that -> Jeg har en kat, der (eller som) er
    • sort.

    • at -> that -> Jeg
    • ved at det er svært til… : I know that it is hard to…

    ·       at serves as a conjunction
  25. singular and plural
    articles
    • den anden bog ->
    • the other book (singular)

    • de andre bøger ->
    • the other books (plural)

     

    • det andet hus ->
    • the other house (singular)

    • de andre huse ->
    • the other houses (plural)

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