Political Parties

Card Set Information

Political Parties
2013-08-02 14:39:45
government 2301

organizing politics
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  1. political organization
    parties & interest groups that function as intermediaries btwn indvs and govt
  2. political parties
    organizations that seek to achieve power by winning public office
  3. majority
    election won by more than 50% of votes
  4. plurality
    election by at least one more vote than the other candidate
  5. Democratic Party
    1 of main parties in Am. politics - traces back to Dem-Rep - acquiring name under Jackson 1828
  6. Whig Party
    Oppose Jackson's party
  7. Republican Party
    1 of main parties in Am. politics - origins to anti-slavery - created under Lincoln
  8. GOP
    "Grand old party" popular label for Republican party
  9. New Deal
    policies of Franklin D Roosevelt during Great Depression - helps form Democratic coalition of urban working-class
  10. Fair Deal
    policies of Harry Truman extending the New Deal and maintaining Dem. party coalition
  11. Great society
    policies of president Lyndon B. Johnson that promised to solve nation's social & economic problems through govt. intervention
  12. Reagan coalition
    combination of social & economic conservatives, religious fundamentalist, anticommunist that rallied behind Reagan
  13. responsible party model
    sys. in which competitive parties adopt a platform of principle, recruiting candidates and directing campaigns based on that platform & holding elected officials responsible for enacting it
  14. party polarization
    tendency of Democratic Party to take more liberal positions & for Republican party to take more conservative positions on key issues
  15. nominee
    political party's entry in general election race
  16. nominations
    political party's selection of candidates for public office
  17. primary elections
    elections to choose party nominees for public office
  18. machines
    tightly disciplined party organizations, headed by a boss that rely on material rewards
  19. patronage
    appointment to public office based on loyalty
  20. Divided Party Government
    one party controls presidency while the other controls both houses of Congress
  21. nonpartisan election
    elections in which candidates do not officially indicate party affiliation - used for city,county, school board, etc
  22. caucus
    nominating process in which party members or leaders meet to nominate candidates or select candidates to conventions
  23. wards
    division in a city for electoral or administrative purposes or as units of organization for political parties
  24. precincts
    subdivisions of a city, county, or ward for election purposes
  25. closed primaries
    primary elections in which voters must declare their party affiliation & can cast a ballot only in their own party's primary election
  26. open primaries
    primary elections in which voter may cast a ballot in either party's primary election
  27. raiding (cross over voting)
    organized efforts by one party to get its members to cross over in a primary & defeat an attractive candidate in opposing party
  28. runoff primary
    additional primary held btwn the top 2 vote-getters in a primary where no candidate has received the majority vote
  29. general elections
    election to choose among candidates nominated by parties and/or independent candidates(who gained access to the ballot by petition)
  30. party-in-the-electorate
    voters who identify themselves w/ a party
  31. ticket splitters
    persons who vote for candidates
  32. party-in-the-government
    public officials who are nominated by their party & who identify themselves in office w/ their party
  33. party organization
    national and state party officials, workers, committee members and others active in party
  34. convention
    nominating process in which delegates from local party organizations select the party's nominees
  35. presidential primaries
    primary elections in states in which voters in each party choose presidential candidate for party's nomination
  36. delegates
    accredited voting members of a party's national presidential nominating convention
  37. Superdelegates
    delegates to Democratic national convention selected b/c of their position in govt or party & not pledged to any candidate
  38. platform
    statement of principles adopted by a political party at its national convention - not binding on party candidate
  39. party identification
    self-described identification w/ a political party
  40. Dealignment
    declining attractiveness of the parties to voters - reluctance to identify strongly with a party
  41. Realignment
    long term shift in social group support for various political parties that creates new coalitions in each party
  42. ideological parties
    exist to promote ideology rather than win election
  43. protest parties
    third parties that arise in response to issues of popular concern not addressed by major parties
  44. single-issue parties
    third parties formed around one particular issue
  45. splinter parties
    third parties formed by dissatisfied faction of a major party
  46. third parties
    political parties that challenge main parties in elections
  47. proportional representation
    electoral system that allocates seats in legislature based on proportion of votes each party receives in national election