child psych

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Author:
jadki1582
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228976
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child psych
Updated:
2013-08-02 15:23:43
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chapter4
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vocabulary
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  1. Midbrain is...
    A section of the brain lying above the medulla and below the cortex that regulates attention, sleeping, waking, and other automatic functions; it is largely developed at birth.
  2. Medulla is...
    A portion of the brain that lies immediately above the spinal cord; it is largely developed at birth.
  3. Cerebral cortex is..
    The convoluted gray portion of the brain, which governs perception, body movement, thinking, and language.
  4. Prefrontal cortex is...
    The part of the frontal lobe just behind the forehead that is responsible for executive processing.
  5. Synaptogenesis is...
    The process of synapse formation.
  6. Neurotransmitters are...
    Chemicals that accomplish the transmission of signals from one neuron to another at synapses.
  7. Pruning is...
    The process of eliminating unused synapses.
  8. Plasticity is...
    The ability of the brain to change in response to experience.
  9. Myelination is...
    The process by which an insulating layer of a substance called myelin is added to neurons.
  10. Reticular formation is...
    The part of the brain that regulates attention.
  11. Selective attention is...
    The ability to focus cognitive activity on the important elements of a problem or situation.
  12. Association areas are...
    Parts of the brain where sensory, motor, and intellectual functions are linked.
  13. Hippocampus is...
    A brain structure that is involved in the transfer of information to long-term memory.
  14. Corpus callosum is...
    The structure that connects the right and left hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
  15. Lateralization is...
    The process through which brain functions are divided between the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
  16. Spatial perception is...
    The ability to identify and act on relationships of objects in space; in most people, this skill is lateralized to the right cerebral hemisphere.
  17. Relative right-left orientation is...
    The ability to identify right and left from multiple perspectives.
  18. Spatial cognition is...
    The ability to infer rules from and make predictions about the movement of objects in space.
  19. handedness is...
    A strong preference for using primarily one hand or the other; it develops between 3 and 5 years of age.
  20. Growth curve is...
    The pattern and rate of growth exhibited by a child over time.
  21. Fontanel is...
    One of several "soft spots" in the skull that are present at birth but disappear when the bones of the skull grow together.
  22. Ossification is...
    The process of hardening by which soft tissue becomes bone.
  23. Bone age is...
    A measure of physical maturation based on x-ray examination of bones, typically the wrist and hand bones. Two children of the same chronological age may have different bone age because their rates of physical maturation differ.
  24. Motor development is...
    Growth and change in ability to perform both gross motor skills (such as walking or throwing) and fine motor skills (such as drawing or writing).
  25. Stamina is...
    The capacity to sustain motor activity.
  26. Endocrine glands are...
    Glands (including the adrenals, the thyroid, the pituitary, the testes, and the ovaries) that secrete hormones governing overall physical growth and sexual maturing.
  27. Pituitary gland is...
    Gland that provides the trigger for release of hormones from other glands.
  28. Puberty is...
    The series of hormonal and physical changes at adolescence that bring about sexual maturity.
  29. Gonadotrophic hormones are...
    Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland at the beginning of puberty that stimulate the development of glands in the testes and ovaries, which then begin to secrete testosterone or estrogen.
  30. Menarche is...
    Onset of menstruation.
  31. secular trend is...
    A pattern of change in some characteristic over several cohorts, such as systematic changes in the average timing of menarche or in average height or weight.
  32. Precocious puberty is...
    Development of secondary sex traits at an age before 8 years.
  33. Endomorphic is...
    Culturally undesirable or somewhat flabby, body type, as a result of puberty.
  34. Mesomorphic is...
    A culturally admired, or lean and muscular, body type usually found in pubescent boys.
  35. Sexually transmitted disease is...
    Category of disease spread by sexual contact, including chlamydia, genital warts, syphilis, gonorrhea, and HIV; also called venereal diseases.
  36. Transgenderism is...
    When psychological gender is inconsistent with ones biological sex.
  37. Excessive weight gain is...
    A pattern in which children gain more weight in a year than is appropriate for their age height, and sex.
  38. Body mass index is...
    A measure that estimates a person's proportion of body fat.
  39. BMI for age is...
    Comparison of an individual child's BMI against established norms for his or her age group and sex.
  40. Obese is...
    Describes a child whose BMI falls above the 95th percentile.
  41. Severely obese is...
    Describes a child whose BMI for age is abve the 99th percentile.
  42. Overweight is...
    Describes a child whose BMI is at the 95th percentile.
  43. Eating disorder is...
    A serious psychological disorder involving distortions of thinking and behavior that go far beyond habitual dieting.
  44. Socioeconomic status is...
    A collective term that includes the economic, occupational, and educational factors that influence a family's relative position in society.
  45. Sensation seeking is...
    A strong desire to experience the emotional and physical arousal associated with risky behaviors such as fast driving  and unprotected sex.

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