Foundations of Research
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. What would you like to do?
Give an example of Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed research?
- Qualitative - ethnography research
- Quantitative - experimental design
- Mixed - action research
What are three ways of classifying research?
- By paradigms of the types of data and analysis
- By method (qualitative, quantitative, action)
- By purpose (basic, evaluation, action, r&d)
What are the methods of research?
qualitative, quantitative, and action
What are some different types of qualitative research?
Ethnography, historical, case study and grounded theory
What is one reason why educators need to take a research course?
Because much of education is based on research nowadays, and teachers need to know how to find, evaluate and understand quality information
What are two types of reasoning and how do they work?
- Inductive and deductive
- A researcher is either generalizing something, inductive
- Or concluding something, deductive
What is inductive reasoning?
- developing generalizations based on observations of a limited number of related events or experiences
- The arrow goes from the bottom to the top of the upside down triangle. The top represents "generalizations", and the bottom represents "limited events and experiences"
- some shit happens in some circumstance, therefore all shit must happen in that circumstance
- ex: A teacher knows several student athletes who are good students and concludes that all student athletes are good students
- ex: When I drive fast on rain slicked roads, I get in an accident, therefore, driving fast on rain slick roads increases the chance of getting in an accident
What is deductive reasoning?
- arriving at specific conclusions based on general principles, observations, or experiences. The arrow goes from the top downward on the upside down triangle. The top represents "generalizations", and the bottom "limited events or experiences"
- all shit happens in some circumstance, therefore specific shit must happen in the same circumstance
- ex: all student athletes are bad students, therefore there must be many specific athletes who are bad students
- ex: driving fast on rain slicked roads causes more accidents, therefore, if someone drives fast on a rain slicked road, they are more likely to get in an accident
What is the scientific method?
- It is a process:
- recognize and define a problem
- formulate a hypothesis
- collect and analyze data
- confirm or dis-confirm hypothesis
- statement of conclusion
People use experience, authority, deductive and inductive reasoning all the time. What must people also use to make their findings valuable research?
The scientific method
What are five basic scales to measure attitudes?
- They indicate feelings on various objects, persons, and activities
- Likert scales - strongly agree, agree, undecided...
- semantic differential scales - respondent selects on a continuum of attitudes
- rating scales - continuum from high to low
- Thurston scales - pair comparisons algorithm, has difficulty with one and zero values
- Guttman scales - binary, yes or no. Questions are successively more difficult, and so it is assumed that respondents can answer questions correctly before the correct question if answered correctly. Such as in math placement tests
- The first three are the most used
What is the independent variable?
The treatment or cause, it is represented with an X
What is the dependent variable?
The outcome or effect of the independent variable, represented with a Y
What are norm-reference tests?
They compare a respondents (student) results with the results of others (students)
What are some sampling techniques for quantitative research?
- Simple random
- Cluster - simple and two-stage
What is sampling?
- The goal of sampling is to pull a sample of the population that is representative of the whole population
- Another term for a sample is a subset of the population
- sampling is used in both quantitative and qualitative research studies
- There are two types of sampling in quantitative research -
- random sampling which produces representative samples
- nonrandom sampling which does not produce representative samples
Some sampling terms
- Sample - a set of elements taken from a larger population
- Statistic - a numerical characteristic of a sample
- Parameter - a numerical characteristic of population
- Sampling error - the difference between the value of a sample statistic,
- such as the sample mean, and the true value of the population parameter, such as
- the population mean.
- There is always some degree of error in sampling
- Random sampling methods - the error is random rather than systematic
- Response rate - the percentage of people in the sample selected for the study who actually participate in the study
- Sampling frame - a list of all the people that are in the population
What is EPSEM related to sampling?
- Equal probability sampling method. It represents the population from which it was selected, such as in simple random sampling, or systematic sampling for quantitative research
- pull from a hat method, or
- Assign everyone in a population a number, and then use a computer to generate random numbers
What are four types of random sampling in quantitative research?
- Simple Random Sampling
- Systematic Sampling
- Stratified Random Sampling
- Cluster Random Sampling
What are four types of non-random sampling in quantitative research?
- Convenience sampling
- Quota sampling
- Purposive sampling
- Snowball sampling
What are the different types of sampling techniques used in qualitative research?
- Maximum variation sampling
- Homogenous sample selection
- Extreme case sampling
- Typical case sampling
- Critical case sampling
- Negative case sampling
- Opportunistic sampling
- Mixed purposeful sampling
What is a t test?
A statistic that checks if two means are reliably different from each other
What is the difference between descriptive and inferential?
- descriptive describes what is such as the existing sample results
- inferential looks at what could be or what is possible through a hypothesis
What are 5 benefits of qualitative research approach?
- It is personal, research of people, holistic
- studies are conducted in a natural environment
- allows for follow up questions for deeper understanding
What are the benefits of quantitative research?
- More objective and less personal
- control of variables for accuracy of data, and also can therefore prove or disprove a specific hypothesis
- Statistical analysis of data to identify patters and relationships
- larger population can be studied
What would you like to do?
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