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Give an example of Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed research?
 Qualitative  ethnography research
 Quantitative  experimental design
 Mixed  action research

What are three ways of classifying research?
 By paradigms of the types of data and analysis
 By method (qualitative, quantitative, action)
 By purpose (basic, evaluation, action, r&d)

What are the methods of research?
qualitative, quantitative, and action

What are some different types of qualitative research?
Ethnography, historical, case study and grounded theory

What is one reason why educators need to take a research course?
Because much of education is based on research nowadays, and teachers need to know how to find, evaluate and understand quality information

What are two types of reasoning and how do they work?
 Inductive and deductive
 A researcher is either generalizing something, inductive
 Or concluding something, deductive

What is inductive reasoning?
 developing generalizations based on observations of a limited number of related events or experiences
 The arrow goes from the bottom to the top of the upside down triangle. The top represents "generalizations", and the bottom represents "limited events and experiences"
 some shit happens in some circumstance, therefore all shit must happen in that circumstance
 ex: A teacher knows several student athletes who are good students and concludes that all student athletes are good students
 ex: When I drive fast on rain slicked roads, I get in an accident, therefore, driving fast on rain slick roads increases the chance of getting in an accident

What is deductive reasoning?
 arriving at specific conclusions based on general principles, observations, or experiences. The arrow goes from the top downward on the upside down triangle. The top represents "generalizations", and the bottom "limited events or experiences"
 all shit happens in some circumstance, therefore specific shit must happen in the same circumstance
 ex: all student athletes are bad students, therefore there must be many specific athletes who are bad students
 ex: driving fast on rain slicked roads causes more accidents, therefore, if someone drives fast on a rain slicked road, they are more likely to get in an accident

What is the scientific method?
 It is a process:
 recognize and define a problem
 formulate a hypothesis
 collect and analyze data
 confirm or disconfirm hypothesis
 statement of conclusion

People use experience, authority, deductive and inductive reasoning all the time. What must people also use to make their findings valuable research?
The scientific method

What are five basic scales to measure attitudes?
 They indicate feelings on various objects, persons, and activities
 Likert scales  strongly agree, agree, undecided...
 semantic differential scales  respondent selects on a continuum of attitudes
 rating scales  continuum from high to low
 Thurston scales  pair comparisons algorithm, has difficulty with one and zero values
 Guttman scales  binary, yes or no. Questions are successively more difficult, and so it is assumed that respondents can answer questions correctly before the correct question if answered correctly. Such as in math placement tests
 The first three are the most used

What is the independent variable?
The treatment or cause, it is represented with an X

What is the dependent variable?
The outcome or effect of the independent variable, represented with a Y

What are normreference tests?
They compare a respondents (student) results with the results of others (students)

What are some sampling techniques for quantitative research?
 Simple random
 Stratified
 Cluster  simple and twostage
 Systematic

What is sampling?
 The goal of sampling is to pull a sample of the population that is representative of the whole population
 Another term for a sample is a subset of the population
 sampling is used in both quantitative and qualitative research studies
 There are two types of sampling in quantitative research 
 random sampling which produces representative samples
 nonrandom sampling which does not produce representative samples

Some sampling terms
 Sample  a set of elements taken from a larger population
 Statistic  a numerical characteristic of a sample
 Parameter  a numerical characteristic of population
 Sampling error  the difference between the value of a sample statistic,
 such as the sample mean, and the true value of the population parameter, such as
 the population mean.
 There is always some degree of error in sampling
 Random sampling methods  the error is random rather than systematic
 Response rate  the percentage of people in the sample selected for the study who actually participate in the study
 Sampling frame  a list of all the people that are in the population

What is EPSEM related to sampling?
 Equal probability sampling method. It represents the population from which it was selected, such as in simple random sampling, or systematic sampling for quantitative research
 pull from a hat method, or
 Assign everyone in a population a number, and then use a computer to generate random numbers

What are four types of random sampling in quantitative research?
 Simple Random Sampling
 Systematic Sampling
 Stratified Random Sampling
 Cluster Random Sampling

What are four types of nonrandom sampling in quantitative research?
 Convenience sampling
 Quota sampling
 Purposive sampling
 Snowball sampling

What are the different types of sampling techniques used in qualitative research?
 Maximum variation sampling
 Homogenous sample selection
 Extreme case sampling
 Typical case sampling
 Critical case sampling
 Negative case sampling
 Opportunistic sampling
 Mixed purposeful sampling

What is a t test?
A statistic that checks if two means are reliably different from each other

What is the difference between descriptive and inferential?
 descriptive describes what is such as the existing sample results
 inferential looks at what could be or what is possible through a hypothesis

What are 5 benefits of qualitative research approach?
 It is personal, research of people, holistic
 studies are conducted in a natural environment
 allows for follow up questions for deeper understanding

What are the benefits of quantitative research?
 More objective and less personal
 control of variables for accuracy of data, and also can therefore prove or disprove a specific hypothesis
 Statistical analysis of data to identify patters and relationships
 larger population can be studied

