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Width and slope
- Defined rectangular area for takeoff and landing
- 45m wide for part 121
- 60m wingspan greater than 52m
- Slope not exceeding 1.25%
- Extension on center line capable of support A/C weight in event of aborted takeoff
- should be at least a s wide as runway
- Area immediately beyond TakeOff run Avaialable
- A/C may overfly at 35ft (screen height) during climb
- At least 150m (180m large airports)
- No negative slope
- Positive slope only 1.25%
- Take Off Run Available
- The length of the runway only
- Accelerate Stop Dist Available
- Runway and Stopway
- Take Off Distance Available
- Runway and Clearway
Accelerate Stop Dist Required
- Accel to VEF (engine fail)
- Then 1sec for pilot recognition (Now at V1)
- Then 2 secs at V1 for brakes and spoilers to arm
- Then distance to stop the plane.
- The height when the takeoff is deemed to be over
- A/C has reached V2 and nominal screen height
- Surface is covered with water up to 3mm deep
- Or runway is moist enough to appear reflective
- Without significant standing water
- No risk of hydroplaning
- 25% or more has
- -Hard Contaminents
- Compacted snow and ice, (reduce friction)
- -Fluid Contaminents
- Standing Water (3mm), Slush, Wet Snow (reduce friction and cause Hydroplaning)
When can a reduced Thrust Takeoff be used?
How much can it be reduced
- When Takeoff weight is less than MAX permissible
- When TODA exceeds what is required
- Runway is Dry (or slight rain)
- No Windshear
- RVR greater than 800m
Up to 25% reduction
How is Reduced Thrust Determined
Thrust setting applicable to highest ambient temp that would meet all takeoff requirements.
Becomes the "Assumed Temp"
- Rotation Speed
- Not less than V1
- Not Less than 1.05 VMCA
- Ensures V2 will be reached by screen height
Lower Limits of V2
(highest of either)
Max Tyre Speed or
- VMaximum Braking energy
- Speed at which full braking can be applied to a stop without cooking brakes.
Final Climb Speed
To be maintained in the final segment after flaps are retracted
Not less than 1.25 VS
VS and VMCA
less than or equal to
So A/C must be controllable on 1 engine quite close to clean stall speed
Define Reference Zero
Point beneath Net A/C where it first achieves
1) V2 & height of 35ft following engine failure on a dry runway
2) V2 & 15ft on wet runway
When does Takeoff path finish
Takeoff Flight Path start?
Takeoff Flight Path Finsh
At the end of the TODA
At 1500ft or en-route config is achieved
Difference between Gross and Net performance and heights?
Gross flight path is the actual path flown by the A/C from the end of the takeoff path at 35ft, to the end of the Takeoff fight Path
Net has a Gradient Penalty applied
Twin engine 0.8%
4 engine 1.0%
Phase of flight following a continued takeoff after engine failure during which
"The A/C is cleaned up from T/O to en-route config, during which time all obstacles must be cleared by a given margin"
NTOFP Obstacle domain starts at what width at the end of the TODA
How is it's width then calculated?
What' it's max width?
Starts at 75m each side of centerline
- goes out by 12.5%
- (so divide distance out by 8 and add to 75)
- Straight (600m or 300 with aid)
- Curved (900m or 600 with aid)
Minimum speed and heights to reach by end of TODA for Dry and wet runways
curved and straight?
V2 Must be reached
35ft - 15ft (straight)
50ft - 30ft (Curved)