The tendencey to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
A statement of the procedures used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be optionally defined a what an intelligence test measures.
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behavior of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
False Consensus Effect
The tendency to overestimate the extent of which others share our beliefs and behaviors
All the cases in a group, from which sample may be drawn for a study.
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an quail chance of inclusion.
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship ranging from -1 to +1
A cluster graph of data recording variables.
The perception of a relationship where none exists
A research method in which an investigator changes variables to observe the effects.
An experimental procedure in which both research participants and staff are blind about who has received a treatment or not
when someone has an improved condition after a placebo
The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to tone version of the independent variable.
The condition of an experiment that acts as the comparison for the experiment
Selecting random participants from an area.
The variable that stays the same
Variable that changes depending on the independent variable, depends on what the independent variable is
Most frequent occurring score
difference between the highest and lowest scores
A computed measure of how much score vary around the average
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
ideas, attitudes, behavior, and traditions from a large group of people passed down from one generation to the next