Psychology Chapter 1 Vocabulary

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Psychology Chapter 1 Vocabulary
2013-08-03 23:51:11

Chapter 1
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  1. Hindsight Bias
    The tendencey to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
  2. Critical Thinking
    Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
  3. Theory
    An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
  4. Hypotheses
    Proposed explanation
  5. Operational Definitions
    A statement of the procedures used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be optionally defined a what an intelligence test measures.
  6. Replicate
    Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
  7. Case Study
    An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
  8. Survey
    A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behavior of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
  9. False Consensus Effect
    The tendency to overestimate the extent of which others share our beliefs and behaviors
  10. Population
    All the cases in a group, from which sample may be drawn for a study.
  11. Random Sample
    A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an quail chance of inclusion.
  12. Naturalistic Observations
    Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
  13. Correlate
    A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship ranging from -1 to +1
  14. Scatter Plots
    A cluster graph of data recording variables.
  15. Illusory Correlation
    The perception of a relationship where none exists
  16. Experiment
    A research method in which an investigator changes variables to observe the effects.
  17. Double-Blind Procedure
    An experimental procedure in which both research participants and staff are blind about who has received a treatment or not
  18. Placebo Effect
    when someone has an improved condition after a placebo
  19. Experimental Condition
    The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to tone version of the independent variable.
  20. Control Condition
    The condition of an experiment that acts as the comparison for the experiment
  21. Randomly Assigning
    Selecting random participants from an area.
  22. Independent Variable
    The variable that stays the same
  23. Dependent Variable
    Variable that changes depending on the independent variable, depends on what the independent variable is
  24. Mode
    Most frequent occurring score
  25. Mean
    The average
  26. Median
    The middle
  27. Range
    difference between the highest and lowest scores
  28. Standard Deviation
    A computed measure of how much score vary around the average
  29. Statistical Significance
    A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
  30. Culture
    ideas, attitudes, behavior, and traditions from a large group of people passed down from one generation to the next