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How is V_{A} Derived?
V _{A} =

Define V_{B}
Turbulence Penetration Speed
 Design speed for max gust intensity
 Gust of 50fps 3000fpm
 Not necessarily the best speed for compromise between high and low stall
For 767 290KIAS

Difference between MRC & LRC
What are the numbers?
Max Range Cruise best drag/thrust Ratio
LRC a little higher. Still get 99% of the max range, but at 4% higher Mach number

How does weight affect cruise range depending on the Cruise Height
The closer to high optimum altitude, the more valuable a weight reduction is.

What a the 3 limits for Max Cruise Alt
 Max Certified Alt
 Thrust limited Alt
 Buffet or Maneuver limit speed


Is specific Range Dependent on temp?
No because the effect of Temp on Fuel Flow and TAS cancel each other out.

Drift Down procedure is what 3 steps?
What is the drift down Gradient for 2 & 4 engine A/C?
 Select MCT (Max Continuous Thrust)
 Decelerate to best lift/drag speed
 Climb or descend to drift down ceiling
 2 Engine 1.1%
 4 engine 1.6%

What Factors affect the Net Drift Down flight path?
What terrain clearance limits apply to net path?
 Wind and Temp
 Icing conditions (anti ice air reduces thrust)
 Must have a positive slope at an alt of at least 1000ft above terrain within 10nm of track
 When level must have 2000ft clearance

Define
V_{LO}
V_{LE
}V_{FE}
V Landing Gear operating (in transit)
V Landing Gear Extended (Locked down)
V Flap Extended

Define
V_{TT} / TTS
V Target Threshold
Target speed at 50ft above threshold
Must be at least V_{REF}

Numbers for flap manoeuvre speeds
25^{o}
15^{o} overshoot

How does higher weight relate to decent profile in regards to planned speeds compared to V_{MIN DRAG}
V_{MIN DRAG} greater than descent speed more weight means higher rate and steeper
V_{MIN DRAG} less than decent speed more weight means lower rate and shallower_{}

Define decent gradiant Y?
ROD = TAS x Y

1) Effect of Altitude on the decent
2) Does Temp affect it?
1) As you descend, rate of decent reduces for same airspeed
Due to weakening mach numbers and idle thrust strengthening slightly
2) No

Meaning of Demonstrated landing dist
Landing Config
Stabilized approach to 50ft
No lower than V_{REF}
Normal dry runway, no extreme braking

Define Screen height
Point 50ft above threshold from where landing distance is meaasured

Define LDA
 Landing distance available
 Declared length for landing and rollout from threshold till end of runway.
 Does not include Stopways!
If approach path is clear it will be the same as TORA

Relationship between landing distances
FAR (factored or required)
Demonstrated must be max 60% of LDA
FAR landing field length is 1.67% of Demonstrated
For wet it is 115% of dry

Approach climb numbers
1) Gear
2) Flaps
3) Thrust
4) Speed
5) Min Gradient
 1) Up
 2) Approach position
 3) GA Thrust on remaining engine
 4) 1.5V_{S}
 5) 2.1%

Landing climb numbers
1) Gear
2) Flaps
3) Thrust
4) Speed
5) Min Gradient
 1) Down
 2) Landing position
 3) GA Thrust on All engines
 4) 1.3VS
 5) 3.2%

State the hydroplaning formula
Rotating
Non Rotating
Rotating
Non Rotating
P = Tire Pressure

