child psych

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jadki1582
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229130
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child psych
Updated:
2013-08-04 17:10:05
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vocabulary
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  1. Scheme is...
    Piaget's word for the basic actions of knowing, including both physical actions (sensorimotor schemes, such as looking or reaching) and mental actions (such as classifying, comparing, and reversing). An experience is assimilated into a scheme, and the scheme is created or modified through accommodation.
  2. Organization is...
    The process of deriving generalizable schemes from specific experiences.
  3. Figurative schemes are...
    Mental representations of the basic properties of objects in the world.
  4. Operative schemes are...
    Mental representations of the logical connections among objects in the world.
  5. Adaptation is...
    The processes through which schemes change.
  6. Assimilation is...
    That part of the adaptation process proposed by Piaget that involves absorbing new experiences or information into existing schemes. experience is not taken in "as is," however, but is modified (or interpreted) somewhat so as to fit the preexisting schemes.
  7. Accomodation is...
    That part of the adaptation process proposed by Piaget by which a person modifies existing schemes as a result of new experiences or creates new schemes when old ones no longer handle the data.
  8. Equilibration is...
    The third part of the adaptation process proposed by Piaget, involving a periodic restructuring of schemes to create a balance between assimilation and accommodation.
  9. Operation is...
    Term used by Piaget for a complex, internal, abstract scheme, first seen at about age 6.
  10. Sensorimotor state is...
    Piaget's term for the first major stage of cognitive development, from birth to about 24 months, when the child uses sensory and motor skills to act on the environment.
  11. Preoperational stage is...
    Piaget's term for the second major stage of cognitive development, from about 24 months to about age 6, marked by the ability to use symbols.
  12. Concrete operations stage is...
    Piaget's term for the stage of development between ages 6 and 12, during which children become able to think logically.
  13. Formal operations stage is...
    Piaget's name for the fourth and final major stage of cognitive development, occurring during adolescence, when the child becomes able to manipulate and organize ideas or hypothetical situations as well as objects.
  14. Social transmission is...
    Information the child gets from other people.
  15. Primary circular reactions are...
    Piaget's phrase to describe a baby's simple repetitive actions in substage 2 of the sensorimotor stage, organized around the baby's own body; the baby repeats some action in order to have some desired outcome occur again such as putting his thumb in his mouth to repeat the good feeling of sucking.
  16. Secondary circular reactions are...
    Repetitive actions in substage 3 of the sensorimotor period, oriented around external objects; the infant repeats some action in order to have some outside event recur, such as hitting a mobile repeatedly so that it moves.
  17. Object permanence is...
    The understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be directly perceived.
  18. Tertiary circular reactions are...
    The deliberate experimentation with variations of previous actions, characteristic of substage 5 of the sensorimotor period, according to Piaget.
  19. Deffered imitation is...
    When a child sees some action and then imitates it at a later time when the model is no longer visible.
  20. Egocentrism is...
    A cognitive state in which the individual (typically a child) sees the world only from his own perspective, without awareness that there are other perspectives.
  21. Conservation is...
    The understanding that the quantity or amount of a substance remains the same even when there are external changes in its shape or arrangement.
  22. Centration is...
    The young child's tendency to think of the world in terms of one variable at a time.
  23. Decentration is...
    Thinking that takes multiple variables into account.
  24. False belief principle is...
    The understanding that another person might have a false belief and the ability to determine what information might cause the false belief. A child's understanding of the false belief principle is one key sign of the emergence of a representational theory of mind.
  25. Theory of mind is...
    Ideas that collectively explain other people's ideas, beliefs, desires, and behavior.
  26. Neo-Piagetian theory is...
    A theory of cognitive development that assumes that Piaget's basic ideas are correct but that uses concepts from information-processing theory to explain children's movement from one stage to the next.
  27. Short-term storage space is...
    A neo-Piagetian term for working memory capacity.
  28. Operational effeciency is...
    A neo-Piagetian term for the number of schemes an individual can place into working memory at one time.
  29. Primitive stage is...
    Infant possesses mental processes that are similar to those of lower animals.
  30. Naive psychology stage is...
    Child learns to use language to communicate but still doesn't understand its symbolic character.
  31. Egocentric speech stage is...
    Child uses language as a guide to solving problems.
  32. Reversibility is...
    One of the most critical of the operations Piaget identified as part of the concrete operations period: the understanding that actions and mental operations can be reversed.
  33. Class inclusion is...
    The principle that subordinate classes of objects are included in superordinate classes.
  34. Inductive logic is...
    Reasoning from the particular to the general, from experience to abroad rues, characteristic of concrete operational thinking.
  35. Deductive logic is...
    Reasoning from the general to the particular, from a rule to an expected instance or from a theory to a hypothesis, characteristic of formal operational thinking.
  36. Horizontal decalage is...
    Piaget's term for school-aged children's inconsistent performance on concrete operations tasks.
  37. Relational complexity is...
    The number of elements in a problem and the complexity of the relationships among the elements.
  38. Transitivity is...
    The ability to make inferences about logical relationships in an ordered set of stimuli.
  39. Seriation is...
    The ability to use a rule to put an array of objects in order.
  40. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning is...
    Piaget's term for the form of reasoning that is part of formal operational thought and involves not just deductive logic but also the ability to consider hypotheses and hypothetical possibilities.
  41. Automaticity is...
    The ability to recall information from long-term memory without effort.
  42. Memory strategies are...
    Ways of manipulating information that increase the chances that it will be remembered.
  43. Production deficiency is...
    A pattern whereby an individual can use some mental strategy if reminded to do so but fails to use the strategy spontaneously.
  44. Utilization deficiency is...
    Using some specific mental strategy without deriving benefit from it.
  45. Metamemory is...
    Knowledge about one's own memory processes.
  46. Metacognition is...
    General and rather loosely used term describing knowledge of one's own thinking processes: knowing what one knows, and how one learns.
  47. Executive processes are...
    Cognitive skills that allow a person to devise and carry out alternative strategies for remembering and solving problems.
  48. Response inhibition is...
    The ability to control responses to stimuli.

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