Pharmacology Final Review

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son850
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229164
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Pharmacology Final Review
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2013-08-07 09:47:22
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Biomedicine
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CNS, Cardiovascular, GI, Antibiotics, Anticancer, Pain Killers, Endocrine, OTC, Osteoporosis, Alzheimer's, Muscle Relaxants
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  1. Amitriptyline
    Imipramine
    Nortriptyline

    What are these Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA) indicated for?
    • Major depressive episodes
    • Enuresis (cannot control urine)
    • Agoraphobia (fear of open spaces)
    • Panic Attacks
    • Obsessive compulsive neurosis
    • Chronic pain
    • Neuralgia
    • Migraine headaches
  2. Bupropion (Wellbutrin)
    2nd Generation Heterocyclic
  3. Venlafaxine (Effexor)
    3rd Generation Heterocyclic
  4. Citalopram (Clexa)
    Fluoxetine (Prozac)
    Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
    Paroxetine (Paxil)
    Sertraline (Zoloft)

    What are these Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) indicated for?
    • Depression
    • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
    • *Luvox is only for OCD
  5. Patients using these should not eat food containing high tyramine content (cheese, beer, chicken liver).
    This can also interfere with drug detoxification.
    Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI)
  6. d-Amphetamine (Dexedrine)
    Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
    Pemoline (Cylert)
    Adderall

    What are these Amphetamine-like drugs indicated for?
    • Narcolepsy (Brain cannot regulate waking/sleeping cycle)
    • Attention deficit disorder in children (ADD)
  7. Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
    Haloperidol (Haldol)

    How do Antipsychotic drug effect the extrapyramidal system of the brain?
    • Acute Dystonia
    • Parkinsonism
    • Akathisia
    • Tardive Dyskinesia

    • *The Extrapyramidal system controls involuntary reflex and coordination
    • **Haldol has dramatic/severe side effects to this system
  8. Levodopa
    Carbidopa (Lodosyn) plus Levodopa
    Amantadine (Symmetrel)
    Bromocriptine (Parlodel)
    Trihexyphenidyl (Artane)
    Benztropine (Cogentin)

    These drugs are indicated for what condition?
    Parkinson (not enough dopamine)
  9. Phenytoin
    Carbamazepine
    Phenobarbital
    Primidone

    These Generalized Tonic-Clonic (Grand Mal) are indicated for?
    Seizures
  10. Barbituarates
    Benzodiazepines
    Buspirone (Buspar)

    These General CNS Depressants are indicated for?
    • Anxiety
    • Insomnia
    • *Buspar is only for Anxiety
  11. What are indications for Barbituarates?
    • Epileptic Seizures
    • Produce general anesthesia (pain killer)
    • Anxiety
    • Neurotic states
  12. What are indications for Benzodiazepines?
    • Anxiety
    • Insomnia
    • Seizure Disorder
    • Muscle Spasm, panic attacks, withdrawal from alcohol
    • *Benzodiazepines are the drug of choice to treat anxiety
  13. What is the drug of choice to treat anxiety?
    Benzodiazepines
  14. Morphine
    Codeine
    Hydrocodone
    Oxycodone
    Central Analgesics / Narcotic Analgesics / Pain Killers
  15. This drug is used for overdose of opioids.
    Naloxone (Narcan)
  16. What are the categories of Heart Failure drugs?
    • Cardiac Glycosides
    • Bipyridines
    • Beta agonists
    • Diuretics
    • Vasodilators
  17. Digoxin

    This Cardiac Glycoside is indicated for?
    • Heart Failure
    • Atrial Fibrillation
    • Atrial Flutter
  18. Amrione (Inocor)
    Milrione (Primacor)

    What category of heart failure drug do these belong to?
    Bipyridines
  19. Dopamine
    Dobutamine

    What category of heart failure drugs do these belong to?
    Beta agonists
  20. Thiazides / Hydrochlorothiazide (Diuril)
    Loop Diuretics / Furosemide (Lasix)
    Potassium-sparing agents / Spironolactone (Aldactone)

    What category of heart failure drugs do these belong to?
    • Diuretics
    • *Hydrochlorothiazides (HCTZ) can cause hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, excessive fluid loss
  21. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

    What category of heart failure drugs does this belong to?
    Vasodilators
  22. What are the five major categories of antihypertensive drugs?
    • Diuretics
    • Sympatholytics
    • Direct-acting vasodilators
    • Calcium channel blocks
    • ACE inhibitors
  23. What are indications for β-Adrenergic Blockers?
    Mild to Moderate Hypertension
  24. What are contraindications for β-Adrenergic Blockers?
    • Severe Diabetes
    • Bradycardia
    • Partial Heart Block
    • Heart Failure
    • Asthma
    • Emphysema
  25. Methyldopa is used to treat mild to moderate hypertension, but especially in what cases?
    Pregnancy
  26. Prazosin (Minipress)
    Terazosin (Hytrin)

    These α1-Andrenergic Blockers have what adverse effects?
    Orthostatic Hypotension
  27. Verapamil (Isopten)
    Diltiazem (Cardizem)
    Nefedipine (Procardia)
    Amlodipine (Norvasc)

    What category of hypertension drugs do these belong to?
    Calcium Channel Blockers
  28. Captopril (Capoten)
    Enalapril (Vasotec)
    Lisonopril (Prinivil)
    Benazepril (Lotensin)

    What are indications for using these ACE inhibitors?
    • Hypertension especially for diabetic neuropathy
    • Used with diuretics and digitalis for heart failure
    • Myocardial infarction to enhance heart perfusion
    • *Contraindicated for pregnancy esp. during 2nd and 3rd trimester, may cause death / injury of fetus
  29. What types of drugs are used to treat angina?
    • Nitroglycerin
    • β-blockers
    • Calcium channel blockers
  30. What are the side effects of Niacin?
    • Skin: itching, intense flushing (redness) of face, neck and ears
    • GI: gastric upset, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  31. Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
    Cerivastatin (Baycol)
    Fluvastatin (Lescol)
    Lovastatin (Mevacor)
    Pravastatin (Pravachol)
    Simvastatin (Zocor)

    These HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors are indicated for?
    • Decreasing: cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides
    • Increasing: HDL
  32. Heparin
    Warfarin

    What types of drugs are these?
    • Anticoagulants (blood thinners)
    • *these act on veins
  33. Aspirin

    What type of drug is this?
    • Antithrombotic / Antiplatelet
    • *prevents clotting esp. on arteries
  34. Streptokinase

    What type of drug is this?
    Thrombolytic (breaks up existing clots)
  35. What are the 4 major groups of Antacids?
    • Aluminum Hydroxide (can promote constipation)
    • Magnesium Hydroxide (can induce diarrhea)
    • Calcium Carbonate
    • Sodium Bicarbonate
  36. Cimetidine (Tagamet)
    Ranitidine (Zantac)
    Famotidine (Pepcid)
    Nizatidine (Axid)

    These H2 Receptor Antagonists are indicated for?
    • Gastric / Duodenal Ulcers
    • Hypersecretion of Acid
    • GERD
    • Stress Ulcers
    • Prevent Aspiration Pneumonitis
    • *Cimetidine can inhibit hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, causing levels of many other drugs to rise: warfarine, phenytoin, theophyline, lidocaine
  37. Omeprazole (Prilosec)
    Lansoprazole (Prevacid)
    Nexium
    Rabeprazole
    Pantoprazole

    What are the therapeutic uses of these Proton-Pump Inhibitors?
    • Superior to H2 receptor antagonists in healing of NSAID-induced peptic ulcers
    • Combination therapy for the eradication of H. pylori infection
  38. Sucralfate (Carafate)
    Colloidal Bismuth Compounds (Pepto-Bismol)

    What types of drugs are these?
    Mucosal Protective Agents
  39. Metoclopramide (Reglan) is indicated for?
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • (antiemetic properties)
  40. Diphenoxylate with Atropine (Lomotil)
    Loperamide (Imodium)

    These drugs are indicated for?
    Diarrhea
  41. Bisacodyl (Dulcolax) and Senna (Senokot) are indicated for?
    • Constipation
    • *overuse can cause Diarrhea
  42. What types of drugs are Psyllium Seed (Metamucil) and Saline Solution (Milk of Magnesia)?
    Bulking Agents
  43. What type of drugs are Mineral Oil, Glycerin Suppositories, Docusate (Colase)?
    Stool Softeners
  44. What types of drugs are
    H1 Antihistamines
    Phenothiazines (compazine)
    Metoclopramide (reglan)
    Ondansetron (zofran)
    Marijuana
    Corticosteroids (dexamethasone)?
    Antiemetic Drugs (prevent nausea and vomiting)
  45. What are the different types of Antibacterial Drugs?
    • Bacterial Cell Wall Inhibitors: disrupts the cell wall structure to prevent proper cell division eventually leading to death
    • DNA Inhibitors: prevents synthesis in anaerobic bacteria
    • Antimetabolites: interfering with enzymes involved in DNA synthesis
    • Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: stops or slows the growth or proliferation of cells by disrupting the processes that lead directly to the generation of new proteins at the ribosome level
  46. Penicillin G
    Penicillin V

    These are the drug of choice for what conditions?
    • Non resistant Staph & Strep
    • Syphilis
    • Anthrax
    • Gas Gangrene
    • Listeria infection
  47. Amoxicillin (Amoxi) is the drug of choice for what conditions?
    • Otitis Media
    • Sinusitis
    • Pneumonia
  48. What is the drug of choice for animal bites and cat scratches?
    Augmentin
  49. What is the drug of choice for Pseudomonas?
    Ticarcillin
  50. Cephalexin (Keflex)
    Cephalothin
    Cefazolin (Ancef)

    These drugs are indicated for what conditions?
    Skin / Soft tissue infections
  51. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) is indicated for what conditions? Adverse effects?
    • Atypical Bacteria: chlamydia, mycobacteria, legionella
    • Infections of the: Lower Respiratory Tract, Bone, Joints
    • Adverse effects: Growth plate arrest in children
  52. Metronidazole (Flagyl) is used against what?
    • Anarobes
    • Protzoans
    • *parasitic infections
  53. What are Sulfadiazine and Sulfapyradine indicated for? Adverse affects?
    • Uncomplicated UTI
    • Prophylaxis against Rheumatic Fever
    • Adverse effects: hypersensitivity (fever / rash) Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (serum sickness)
  54. Trimethoprim / Sulfamethoxazole (TMP / SMZ, Cortimoxazole, Septra, Bactrim) are indicate for what conditions?
    • Inexpensive, effective choice for: UTI, acute otitis media, traveler's diarrhea
    • Used for Pneumocysitis carinii prophylaxis / treatment in immunocompromised hosts
  55. What are the side effects of taking Gentamicin and Tobramycin?
    • Neurotoxicity
    • Ototoxicity
    • Vertigo
    • Nephrotoxicity
  56. What are Clarithromycin (Biaxin) and Azithromycin (Zithromax) indicated for?
    • Sore throat due to infection
    • *Azithromycin also for uncomplicated chlamydia infections
  57. What is the drug for choice for Pseudomembranous Colitis?
    Clindamycin (Cleocin)
  58. Tetracycline (Achromycin) and Doxycycline (Vibramycin) are indicated for? Adverse effects?
    • Acne
    • Chlamydial infection
    • Lyme disease
    • Adverse effects: GI distress, reversible nephotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, photosensitivity (easily sunburned), dental staining
  59. Vaccomycin (Vancocin) is the drug of choice for?
    • Antibiotic Associated Colitis (C. Difficile)
    • PRSA (penicillin resistant staph aureus)
    • MRSA (methicillin)
  60. For these kinds of drugs, treatment consists of several kinds to prevent resistance from single type. Prophylactic treatment is recommended for asymptomatic patients that develop skin test positivity and for your (<4 years) or immunocompromised patients that are exposed to an infectious case of tuberculosis.
    • Antituberculosis Drugs
    • Isoniazid, Rifampin, Streptomycin, Ethanbutol
  61. Acyclovir is indicated for?
    Herpes
  62. Ganciclovir is indicated for?
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  63. Amantadine and Remantidine are indicated for?
    Influenza
  64. Ribavirin is indicated for?
    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
  65. Interferon alfa's are indicated for?
    • Chronic Hepatitis C
    • AIDS assoc Kaposi Sarcoma
    • Hairy Cell Leukemia
    • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
    • Malignant Melanoma
    • Follicular non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
  66. What are the categories of Anti-HIV drugs?
    • Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI's)
    • Noncucleoside Reverse Transriptase Inhibitors (NNRTI's)
    • Protease Inhibitors
  67. Terbinafine (Lamisil) is indicated for?
    Toenail infection (fungal)
  68. Anti cancer drugs are much more toxic to tissues with ___1__ growth fraction than to tissues with ___2__ growth fraction.
    • 1: High
    • 2: Low
  69. Solid tumors have a low growth fraction and therefore tend to respond ____1____ to chemotherapy. In contrast, disseminated cancers have a high growth fraction and generally respond ____2____ to chemotherapy.
    • 1: poorly
    • 2: well
  70. These agents are generally more effective against slow-growing tumors than other classes of antineoplastics.
    Alkylating Agents
  71. What are the indications for taking Methotrexate?
    • Cancers: pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia, osteogenic sarcoma, Burkitts lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, head and neck sarcomas, choriocarcinoma
    • Severe psoriasis (in low doses)
    • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  72. Unlike most other anticancer drugs, _________, exerts minimal toxicity to bone marrow (non-immunosuppressive). Nausea and vomiting are usually mild.
    • Bleomycin
    • *this is an excellent choice for combination therapy
  73. This is the drug of choice for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
    Tomoxifen
  74. This is the drug of choice for advanced carcinoma of the prostate.
    Leuprolide (Lupron)
  75. This drug is one of the most effective agents against solid tumors.
    Cisplatin
  76. What are the effects of Aspirin?
    • Anti-inflammatory (heat, swelling, pain)
    • Analgesic (pain)
    • Antipyretic (heat / fever)
    • Platelet (clotting)
  77. What are the uses of Aspirin?
    • Relieve fever, pain, inflammation (arthritis), Decrease TIA
    • For Heart conditions
    • Decrease incidence of Colon Cancer
  78. What are contraindications of Aspirin?
    • Bleeding disorders
    • Peptic ulcer disease
  79. What are the effects of Ibuprofen / Naproxen?
    • Anti-inflammatory
    • Analgesic
    • Anti-pyretic
    • *equivalent to Aspirin but more analgesic effect than aspirin / acetaminophen
  80. Ketorolac (Toradol) is indicated for?
    Short-term pain management
  81. What are the effects of Acetaminophen (Tylenol)?
    • Analgesic
    • Antipyretic
  82. What are the uses of Acetaminophen (Tylenol)?
    • Mild to Moderate pain and fever
    • Preferred over Aspirin due to Reye's Syndrome
  83. What are adverse effects of Acetaminophen (Tylenol)?
    • Rash / drug fever due to allergic reaction
    • Overdose may cause hepatic necrosis (liver death) leading to coma and death
  84. Penicillamine
    Chloroquine
    Hydroxy-chloroquine (plaquenil)
    Gold Salts

    What other drug types are included in Antiarthritic Agents? effects?
    • Types: prostaglandin inhibitors, corticosteriods, immunosuppressants
    • Effects: reduce inflammation, reduce concentrations in joints without reaching toxic serum levels
  85. What can you tell me about antigout agents?
    • Sodium urate crystals in joints causing inflammation (tophaceous gout)
    • NSAIDs relieve symptoms by lowering uric acid levels
    • Inhibit xanthine oxidase, enzymes producing uric acid, preventing uric acid reabsorption from urine
  86. What are the effects of Antihistamines?
    • H1 antihistamines are useful for treating allergies
    • H2 antagonists inhibit acid and pepsin secretion in GI (used for peptic ulcer disease)
  87. What are adverse effects of Insulin Replacement Therapy for IDDM (type 1 DM)?
    Hypoglycemia
  88. What is treatment for NIDDM (Type 2 DM)?
    • Diet
    • Exercise
    • Drug Therapy
  89. Glipizide (Glucotrol)
    Glyburide (Micronase, Diabeta)
    Glimepiride (Amaryl)

    What class of drugs are these for NIDDM (Type 2)?
    • Second Generation Sulfonylureas
    • *Oral Hypoglycemics + Insulin
  90. What are the uses of Metformin?
    Refractory obesity whose hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance
  91. Pioglintazone (Actos)
    Rosiglintazone (Avandia)

    What class of NIDDM drugs are these?
    Thiazolindinediones
  92. Acarboase (Precose)

    What class of NIDDM drug is this?
    Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors
  93. What are the therapeutic strategies for Hyperthyroidism?
    • Drugs: Methimazole (Tapazole), Propylthiouracil (PTU)
    • Sugery
    • Radioactive Iodine
    • Propranolol
  94. What are the therapeutic strategies for Hypothyroidism?
    Levothyroxine (Synthroid)
  95. Calcitonin is used for the treatment of?
    Hyperparathyroidism
  96. Induces uterine contractions
    Promotes milk production
    Induces / accelerates labor
    Decrease postpartum uterine bleeding

    What drug is this?
    Oxytocin (Pitocin)
  97. What are indication for Testosterone? adverse effects? abused by?
    • Androgen deficiency
    • Adverse Effects:
    • hypercalcemia, coagulopathies, sodium and water retention, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis
    • Women: virilis (hirsutism), menstrual irregularities
    • Men: prostatic hyperplasia / cancer, gynecomastia, pattern baldness, reduced sperm count
    • Abused: weightlifters, body builders, football players
  98. What are indications for Estrogen? adverse effects?
    • Indications: contraception, atrophic vaginitis, osteoporosis
    • Adverse effects: nausea, breast tenderness / edema, gynecomastia
  99. What are indications for Progestin?
    • Contraceptions
    • Irregular / Hemorrhagic menstrual bleeding, endometrial carcinoma
  100. What are indications for Cortisol? adverse effects?
    • Indications: replacement therapy for deficiency, autoimmune diseases, arthritis, asthma, dermatitis, cancer, sarcoidosis
    • Adverse effects: adrenal suppression, Cushing's syndrome, suppression of somatic growth, osteopenia, bone fractures
  101. What are the effects of Aldosterone?
    Retains sodium and water in the blood
  102. Chemically identical to cortisol, produced by adrenal glands. Preferred drug for replacement therapy. Short acting.
    Hydrocortisone (Hydrocort)
  103. Intermediate duration of action
    Drug of choice for maintenance therapy of severe asthma
    Important agent in leukemia therapy
    Prednisone (Deltasone)
  104. Intermediate duration of action
    Drug of choice for acute asthmatic attacks (intravenous)
    Prednisolone
  105. What drug are of special concern for patients taking H2 Blockers / Proton Pump Inhibitors?
    • Theophylline (asthma)
    • Warfarin (blood thinner)
    • Phenytoin (seizures)
    • Prescription fungal / yeast problems
    • Diazepam (anxiety)
    • Digoxin (heart)
  106. Who should not take Loperamide?
    • Rash (due to allergic reaction)
    • Blood / Black stools
  107. Who should not take bismuth subsalicylate?
    • Aspirin allergies
    • Children with flu / chickenpox (due to Reye's Syndrome)
  108. Dramamine (dimenhydrinate / miclizine hydrochloride) can be used for?
    nausea and vomiting (due to motion sickness)
  109. What can OTC antihistamines treat?
    • allergies (itchy, watery eyes, runny nose)
    • cold
    • flu
    • itchiness from bug bites / stings
    • poison ivy / oak
    • insomnia
  110. What are the side effects of first generation OTC antihistamines?
    • sleepiness
    • foggy mind
    • dry eyes / mouth
    • *second generation does not cause these side effects
  111. What are the two types of OTC cough medicines?
    • Antitussives (cough)
    • Expectorants (mucus)
  112. Triaminic Cold & Cough
    Robitussin Maximum Strength
    Vick 44 Cough relief

    These drugs contain?
    Dextromethorphan
  113. Mucinex and Robitussin Expectorant contain?
    Guifenesin
  114. If you have any of these: heart disease, high blood pressure, glaucoma, diabetes; what should you consult your doctor before taking?
    Decongestants
  115. Citrucel
    Metamucil

    What class of laxatives are these?
    Bulk-forming
  116. Glycerine suppositories
    Mineral Oil

    What class of laxatives are these?
    Lubricating
  117. What class of laxative is Colace?
    Stool softeners
  118. What class of laxative is Milk of Magnesia?
    Saline
  119. What class of laxative is Senokot?
    Stimulant
  120. Aspirin
    Ibuprofen
    Ketoprofen
    Naproxen

    What type of OTC medications are these?
    Pain relievers
  121. Excedrin Extra Strength
    Excedrin Migraine
    Vanquish

    What drugs do these products contain?
    Acetaminophen and Aspirin
  122. Who shouldn't take NSAIDs?
    • Blood thinners / Bleeding disorders
    • GI Bleeding
    • LR / KI disease
    • 3+ alcoholic drinks per day
  123. If you take St. John's wort, what drugs can be affected?
    • Antidepressants
    • MAOI's
    • Heart drugs
    • Hypertension
    • Birth control
    • Anticonvulsants (seizures)
    • antiviral
    • immunosupressants
  124. Fosamax
    Boniva
    Actonel

    What class of osteoporosis drugs are these?
    Bisphosphonates
  125. Miacalcin Nasal Spray / Injection
    Fortical Nasal Spray
    Osteocalcin Injection
    Calcimar Injection
    Salmonine Injection

    What class of osteoporosis drugs are these?
    Calcitonin
  126. Premarin
    Estrace
    Prempro
    Estraderm
    Estratab

    What class of osteoporosis drugs are these?
    Estrogens
  127. Namenda (severe type)
    Razdyne (mild to moderate)
    Exelon (mild to moderate)
    Aricept (moderate to severe)

    What are these drugs indicated for?
    Alzheimer's Disease
  128. Flexeril (Cyclobenzaprine HCL)
    Robaxin (Methocarbamol)
    Skelaxin (Metaxalone)
    Soma (Carisoprodol)

    What types of drugs are these?
    Muscle Relaxants

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