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Insufficient supply of O2 and other nutrients to the body cells resulting from inadequate circulation of blood.
Etiologies of Shock
- Inadequate volume
- Inadequate pump function
- Inadequate vessel tone
- Shock caused by the loss of blood or fluid from the intravascular space resulting in a low blood volume.
- Nonhemorrhagic-burn, diarrhea, excessive sweating, over urinating
- Shock associated with a decrease in intravascular volume caused by massive system vasodilation and an increase in the capillary permeability
- Septic-results from infection that causes vessels throughout the body to dilate and become more permeable
- Neurogenic-damage of the spinal cord might cause damage to the sympathetic nerve fibers and cause vessel dilation
- Poor perfusion resulting from an ineffective pump function of the heart.
- From MI
- From CHF
- From beta blockers/Ca channel blockers
- From abnormal rhythm
- Poor perfusion state resulting from a condition that obstructs forward blood flow.
- From tension pneumothorax
- From pulmonic embolism
- From pericardial tamponade-fluid accumulates in the pericardium(the sac in which the heart is enclosed)
- Dysfunction in the ability of O2 to diffuse into blood.
Stages of Shock
Stage of shock in which a cascade of organ and gland stimulation and hormones increase blood pressure, restores arterial wall tension, and maintains a near normal blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs
Stage of shock in which the body's compensatory mechanisms are no longer able to maintain a blood pressure and perfusion of the vital organs.
Stage in which interventions cannot prevent the advance of shock to death.
Bringing a patient back from a potential or apparent death
The cessation of cardiac function with the patient displaying no pulse, no breathing, and unresponsiveness
Death of a patient within 1hr of the onset of signs and symptoms.
The time from cardiac arrest until effective CPR; total downtime is the time from cardiac arrest until delivery to the emergency department.
Return of Spontaneous Circulation(ROSC)
Spontaneous pulse during resuscitation.
Term applied to a patient who survives cardiac arrest to be discharged from the hospital.
Chain of Survival
Series of interventions-early access, CPR, defibrillation, and ACLS-that provides the best chance for successful cardiac resuscitation.
Electrical shock delivered to help the heart restore a normal rhythm.
Automated External Defibrillator(AED)
A device that can analyze the electrical activity or rhythm of the heart and deliver an electrical shock if appropriate.
A heart rhythm indicating absence of any electrical activity in the heart.
Pulseless Electrical Activity(PEA)
A condition in which the hear generates relatively normal electrical rhythms but fails to perfuse the body adequately because of a decreased or absent cardiac output from cardiac muscle failure or blood loss.