Insufficient supply of O2 and other nutrients to the body cells resulting from inadequate circulation of blood.
Etiologies of Shock
Inadequate pump function
Inadequate vessel tone
Shock caused by the loss of blood or fluid from the intravascular space resulting in a low blood volume.
Nonhemorrhagic-burn, diarrhea, excessive sweating, over urinating
Shock associated with a decrease in intravascular volume caused by massive system vasodilation and an increase in the capillary permeability
Septic-results from infection that causes vessels throughout the body to dilate and become more permeable
Neurogenic-damage of the spinal cord might cause damage to the sympathetic nerve fibers and cause vessel dilation
Poor perfusion resulting from an ineffective pump function of the heart.
From beta blockers/Ca channel blockers
From abnormal rhythm
Poor perfusion state resulting from a condition that obstructs forward blood flow.
From tension pneumothorax
From pulmonic embolism
From pericardial tamponade-fluid accumulates in the pericardium(the sac in which the heart is enclosed)
Dysfunction in the ability of O2 to diffuse into blood.
Stages of Shock
Stage of shock in which a cascade of organ and gland stimulation and hormones increase blood pressure, restores arterial wall tension, and maintains a near normal blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs
Stage of shock in which the body's compensatory mechanisms are no longer able to maintain a blood pressure and perfusion of the vital organs.
Stage in which interventions cannot prevent the advance of shock to death.
Bringing a patient back from a potential or apparent death
The cessation of cardiac function with the patient displaying no pulse, no breathing, and unresponsiveness
Death of a patient within 1hr of the onset of signs and symptoms.
The time from cardiac arrest until effective CPR; total downtime is the time from cardiac arrest until delivery to the emergency department.
Return of Spontaneous Circulation(ROSC)
Spontaneous pulse during resuscitation.
Term applied to a patient who survives cardiac arrest to be discharged from the hospital.
Chain of Survival
Series of interventions-early access, CPR, defibrillation, and ACLS-that provides the best chance for successful cardiac resuscitation.
Electrical shock delivered to help the heart restore a normal rhythm.
Automated External Defibrillator(AED)
A device that can analyze the electrical activity or rhythm of the heart and deliver an electrical shock if appropriate.
A heart rhythm indicating absence of any electrical activity in the heart.
Pulseless Electrical Activity(PEA)
A condition in which the hear generates relatively normal electrical rhythms but fails to perfuse the body adequately because of a decreased or absent cardiac output from cardiac muscle failure or blood loss.