Pharmacology Final Review
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All preparations of the same drug name must have uniform strength, qualities and purity.
Controled substances act
1970 Drug enforcement administration under the department of justice
1938 U.S. agency overseeing food safety: the federal agency that oversees trade in and the safety of food and drugs in the United States.
- -Common or general
- -Assigned by the U.S adopted name council
- -Is given to he company that discovers that chemical compounds
- -Differentiated by initial lower case letter
- -The name by which a pharmaceutical company identify its product
- -Identified by the initial capitalized letter and a symbol R (circled R) after the name
-The exact molecular formula of the drug
- -Name of the drug as it appears in the official references USP/NF
- -Same as the generic name
Actions- a description of cellular changes that occur as a result of a drug
Indications-a list of diseases or medical conditions for which the drug is used
Contraindications- A list of conditions for which the drug should not be given
The action of drugs in the body over a period of time, including the processes of absorption, distribution, localization in tissues, biotransformation, and excretion.
Absorption- drug enters the blood
Distribution- from blood to the cells and tissues
Metabolism- biotransformation (breakdown)
Excretion- kidney, lungs, GIT, sweat gland
Synergism- the action of two drugs produce an effect that neither could produce alone
Potentiation- the action of two drugs in which one prolongs or multiplies the other
Antagonism- the opposing action of two drugs in which one decreases the effect of the other
Enteric coated tablet
Time release capsule
Enteric coated tablet- special coating that resists disintegrating by gastric juices. Dissolving in the intestine.
Time release capsule- contains drug particles that have various coatings. These coatings dissolve at various times thus delivering a dose over an extended amount of time.
Emulsion- contains oil and fat in the water
Suspension- not evenly dissolved, needs to be shaked well before use
Elixir- alcohol based
Syrup- sweetened flavored liquid
Error in drug administration
1. Report it immediately to the one in charge so that corrective actions can be taken for the patients welfare
2. Patients record should reflect the corrective action taken for justification in legal proceedings
3. An incident report must be completed
Retention enema/Suppository administration
Retention enema- an enema designed to be retained in the bowl after administration to allow the contents of the enema to be absorbed through the bowel wall. Can be released after 30min. The retention enema is administered in the same way as a cleaning enema.
- Subcutaneous- beneath the skin.
- Pinch skin into a fold at 45 degree angle. Don't massage.
- -upper outer arm
- -front of the thigh
- -upper back
- *cannot inject more than 2ml
- Intramuscular- injection of a substance directly into a muscle.
- -dorsogluteal (upper outer quandrant)
- -deltoid (no more than 1ml)
- -vastus lateralis (infants, in the upper thigh)
- -rectus femoris (self injection)
- -3 ml for an adult no more than 1ml for a child. Absorption is rapid.
- Intradermal- within skin: within or introduced between the layers of the skin.
- -inner surface of the lower arm
- -upper chest
- -upper back
- *when performed correctly it will produce a wheal or bubble. EG. TB test.
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