Pharmacology Final Review

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Jcolon1895
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229212
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Pharmacology Final Review
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2013-08-05 20:41:56
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Pharmacology Final Review
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Pharmacology Final Review
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  1. Drug standard
    All preparations of the same drug name must have uniform strength, qualities and purity.
  2. DEA
    Controled substances act

    1970 Drug enforcement administration under the department of justice
  3. FDA
    1938 U.S. agency overseeing food safety: the federal agency that oversees trade in and the safety of food and drugs in the United States.
  4. Drug names

    Generic name
    Generic

    • -Common or general
    • -Assigned by the U.S adopted name council
    • -Is given to he company that discovers that chemical compounds
    • -Differentiated by initial lower case letter
  5. Drug names

    Trade name
    Trade name

    • -The name by which a pharmaceutical company identify its product
    • -Identified by the initial capitalized letter and a symbol R (circled R) after the name
  6. Drug names

    Chemical name
    Chemical name

    -The exact molecular formula of the drug
  7. Drug names

    Official name
    Official name

    • -Name of the drug as it appears in the official references USP/NF
    • -Same as the generic name
  8. Actions

    Indications

    Contraindications
    Actions- a description of cellular changes that occur as a result of a drug

    Indications-a list of diseases or medical conditions for which the drug is used

    Contraindications- A list of conditions for which the drug should not be given
  9. Pharmacokinetics
    The action of drugs in the body over a period of time, including the processes of absorption, distribution, localization in tissues, biotransformation, and excretion.
  10. Absorption

    Distribution

    Metabolism

    Excretion
    Absorption- drug enters the blood

    Distribution- from blood to the cells and tissues

    Metabolism- biotransformation (breakdown)

    Excretion- kidney, lungs, GIT, sweat gland
  11. Synergism

    Potentiation

    Antagonism
    Synergism- the action of two drugs produce an effect that neither could produce alone

    Potentiation- the action of two drugs in which one prolongs or multiplies the other

    Antagonism- the opposing action of two drugs in which one decreases the effect of the other
  12. Enteric coated tablet

    Time release capsule
    Enteric coated tablet- special coating that resists disintegrating by gastric juices. Dissolving in the intestine.

    Time release capsule- contains drug particles that have various coatings. These coatings dissolve at various times thus delivering a dose over an extended amount of time.
  13. Emulsion

    Suspension

    Elixir

    Syrup
    Emulsion- contains oil and fat in the water

    Suspension- not evenly dissolved, needs to be shaked well before use

    Elixir- alcohol based

    Syrup- sweetened flavored liquid
  14. Error in drug administration
    1. Report it immediately to the one in charge so that corrective actions can be taken for the patients welfare

    2. Patients record should reflect the corrective action taken for justification in legal proceedings

    3. An incident report must be completed
  15. Retention enema/Suppository administration
    Retention enema- an enema designed to be retained in the bowl after administration to allow the contents of the enema to be absorbed through the bowel wall. Can be released after 30min. The retention enema is administered in the same way as a cleaning enema.
  16. Syringes
    Standard

    Tuberculin

    Insulin
  17. Subcutaneous
    • Subcutaneous- beneath the skin.
    • Pinch skin into a fold at 45 degree angle. Don't massage.
    • -upper outer arm
    • -front of the thigh
    • -abdomen
    • -upper back
    • *cannot inject more than 2ml
  18. Intramuscular
    • Intramuscular-  injection of a substance directly into a muscle.
    • -dorsogluteal (upper outer quandrant)
    • -ventrogluteal
    • -deltoid (no more than 1ml) 
    • -vastus lateralis (infants, in the upper thigh)
    • -rectus femoris (self injection)
    • -3 ml for an adult no more than 1ml for a child. Absorption is rapid.
  19. Intradermal
    • Intradermal- within skin: within or introduced between the layers of the skin.
    • -inner surface of the lower arm
    • -upper chest
    • -upper back
    • *when performed correctly it will produce a wheal or bubble. EG. TB test.

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