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What structures does the right atrium receive blood from?
What structure does the ductus arteriosus become when it closes?
What is the structure that forms as a result of the junction between the sinus venosus and the primitive right atrium?
How can LV enlargement be assessed on the lateral plain film?
Extension greater than 1.8 cm posterior to border of IVC
What is the first manifestation of congestive heart failure on a radiograph?
Cephalization of blood flow - Perivascular edema in lower lobes > decreased compliance > flow directed upwards
What are chest radiographic findings that are associated with Down's syndrome?
Hypersegmentation of the sternum (more than 5 segments)
11 or fewer ribs
Cardiomegaly (endocardial cushion defect)
What is the pathophysiology of inferior rib notching seen in things like aortic co-arctation?
Increased collateral circulation via intercostal arteries
What determines the sidedness of dominance of the coronary circulation?
The side that gives rise to the posterior descending artery (PDA)
What is the difference between aortic coarctation and aortic pseudo-coarctation?
Pseudocoarctation - excessive length of descending aorta
No pressure gradient
No rib notching (no need for collaterals)
Abnormal tricuspid valve displaced downward into right ventricle > right heart enlargement
What is the most common malignant PRIMARY cardiac tumor?
How does infarcted myocardium behave with delayed contrast enhancement?
Normal myocardium - contrast washes in and out quickly
Abnormal myocardium - holds onto contrast
What separates the inflow and outflow portions of the right ventricle?
What are complications of congenital/partial absence of the pericardium?
Occasionally can cause herniation
Left atrial enlargement
Double density sign
Splaying of carina
What is the characteristic defect in total/partial anomalous pulmonary venous return?
Pulmonary blood flow going into the right atrium (directly/indirectly) instead of the left atrium.
What are characteristic findings in Loeys Dietz syndrome?
Arterial aneurysms/tortuosity (particularly aortic root, more pronounced vascular involvement versus Marfan's syndrome)
What is the difference in enhancement between myocardial infarction and myocarditis?
Myocarditis - does not have subendocardial enhancement - typically mid myocardial or sub EPI cardial enhancement
What is the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults versus children?
Adults - myxoma
Children - rhabdomyosarcoma
What is the most common location for a cardiac myxoma?
Most commonly seen in left atrium
What are the sinuses of Valsalva?
3 small dilatations of the aortic root, thought to be helpful in allowing aortic leaflets to open without occluding coronaries.
Right coronary sinus, left coronary sinus and non-coronary sinus
Bland White Garland Syndrome
Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery
Anomalous venous return from right heart to the systemic circulation instead of the left atrium.
What is the most common restrictive cardiomyopathy in the United States?
Pulmonary stenosis - right ventricular outflow tract obstruction with post stenotic dilatation of main pulmonary artery and preferential flow to left pulmonary artery
- Annuloaortic ectasia
- Pectus deformity (excavatum)
- Dural ectasia
Review of cardiac radiology