What are some disadvantages to sexual reproduction?
Recombination can break up adaptive combinations, female only passes 50% of genes to offspring, dividing offspring to two genders reduces overall reproductive rate.
In which kind of reproductive population would a mutant quickly spread?
Asexual; it is hard to generate an asexual mutant
What are 3 reasons sexual reproduction may have evolved? Advantages?
New combinations produce genetic variety that increases reproductive success, damaged dna can be repaired by copying the intact sequence on the other chromosome; genetic combinations can be advantageous.
What is Muller's ratchet?
In asexually reproducing species, an accumulation of a deleterious mutation. They ratchet up
What does sexual recombination influence? What doesn't it influence?
It generates new combinations of alleles on which natural selection can act, it does not directly influence the frequencies of alleles.
True or false. Sexual recombination directly influences frequencies of alleles.
What is lateral gene transfer?
When individual genes, organelles, or genome fragments move horizontally from one lineage to another.
What are 4 examples of lateral gene transfer?
Hybridization, transduction, transformation, plasmid trasnferred between bcteria during conjugation.
What is transduction?
Virus may transfer DNA from one bacterial host to another
What is transformation?
DNA fragments taken up from surrounding environment.
How can lateral gene transfer be advantageous?
They can transfer antibiotic resistance to other bacteria
Under what process do genomes gain a new function?
Gene duplication, this can lead to massive opportunities for new functions to evolve.
What are 4 end results to gene duplication?
1.Both copies keep original function and may increase amount of gene product, 2. gene expression can split in different tissues or at different times in development. 3. one copy can accumulate deleterious mutations and become a pseudogene. 4. One copy keeps old function and the other changes and evolves a new function.
How can scientists understand protein structure and function?
Molecular evolutionary principles.
How do evolutionary principles benefit agriculture?
They can lead to better practices regarding pesticide use