16 pt 1.txt
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What is a phylogeny?
The evolutionary history of relationships between species
What is phylogenetic tree?
A diagrammatic reconstruction of that history
What are phylogenetic trees used for?
To depict the relationships between and evolutionary history of groups of taxa, species, populations, or genes
What characters can trees be constructed based on?
Morphological, behavioral, biochemical, genomic
What is a taxa (p taxon)
Any species or group of species that we designate with a name
What is a clade?
A taxon that consists of all the evolutionary descendants of a common ancestor
What are sister taxa?
Two taxa that are each other's closest relatives
What are synapomorphies?
Shared derived traits that are used to define clades because they provide evidence of the common ancestry of a group
What are two other terms for synapomorphies
Homologies and homologous features
What is convergent evolution?
When superficially similar traits may evolve independently in different lineages
What is an evolutionary reversal?
When a character reverses from a derived state back to an ancestral state
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