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2013-08-05 19:26:49

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  1. Finish the statement: eukaryotes are ____phyletic and are _____ taxa to archaea.
    Mono; sister
  2. Where are mitochondria and chloroplasts derived from?
    Bacterial lineages.
  3. What are some events that led to the origin of the eukaryotic cell?
    Cell skeleton was lost, cytoskeleton formed, nuclear envelope developed, digestive vacuoles appeared, mitochondria formed by endosymbiosis.
  4. What was the key innovation in the eukaryotic cell?
    The loss of the cell wall
  5. What did the loss of the cell wall mean?
    Flexible cell surface, origin of nuclear envelope and development of cytoskeleton for structure, support and movement
  6. What is endocytosis?
    The pinching off of bits of the environment and bringing them into the cell.
  7. What is the use of phagocytosis and digestive vacuoles?
    To engulf and digest other cells.
  8. What is endosymbiosis.?
    When a proteobacteriam was incorpoerated and evolved into the mitochcondrion.
  9. In which specimens did chloroplasts develop?
    Red algae, green algae, and land plants
  10. How did the development of chloroplasts occur?
    In a series of endosymbioses in which a cyanobacterium was engulfed. Creating multiple membranes and peptidoglycans.
  11. What are protists?
    Eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi; it is not a formal taxonomic group but rather a term for all unicellular eukaryotes
  12. Multicellularity evolved __________
    More than once.
  13. What are the 5 major clades of protisan eukaryotes ASIDE FROM plants, fungi, and animals?
    Alveolates, stramenopiles, rhizaria, excabates, and amoebozoans
  14. What are alveolates?
    Unicellular and photosynthetics eukaryotes. (dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates)
  15. What are excavates?
    A diverse group including some pathogens but also some photosynthetic organisms.
  16. What are some excavates?
    Diplomonads, parabasalids, heteroloboseans, euglenids, and kinetoplastids
  17. What are some stramenopiles?
    Diatoms, brown algae, and oomycetes
  18. What are rhizaria?
    Unicellular, aquatic, with thin/long pseudopods. Make up large part of ocean sediments
  19. What are some rhizaria?
    Cercozoans, foraminiferans, and radiolarians
  20. What are some amoebozoans?
    Amoeboid body form with lobe-shaped pseudopods.
  21. What are some amoebozoans?
    • Loboseans, plasmodial slime molds, cellular slime molds