Positions lie toward the back (dorsum) of the trunk or, by extension, toward the corresponding surface of the head or tail.
Structures lie toward the belly (venter) or the corresponding surface of the head or tail
Structures lie toward the head (cranium, literally skull)
Structures lie toward the the tail (cauda).
Within the head, structures toward the muzzle (rostrum)
Structures lie toward the median plane (medianus, in the middle) that divides the body into symmetrical right and left "halves"
Structures lie toward the side (latus, flank) or the animal
Proximus, near. Within the part of the limb this extends to the proximal limit of the carpus (wrist) and tarus (hock, ankle)
distania, distance. Within the limb this is beyond the proximal limit of the carpus (wrist( and tarus (hock, ankle)
(dorsum, back of the hand) within the distal area of a limb, the structures that are to the "front"
(palma, palm of the hand) within the distal area of the limb, the structures that are to the "rear" of the forelimb
(planta, sole of the foot) within the distal area of the limb, the structures that are to the "rear" of the hindlimb
Structures lie close to the axis of a central digit, close to the axis of the limb is this passes between two digits
(ab, away from) positions are at a distance from the reference axis
Divides the body into symmetrical right and left halves
any plane parallel to the median plane
Is close and parallel the the median plane
Sections the trunk or other part parallel to the dorsal surface
Transects the trunk, head, limb or other appendage perpendicular to its own long axis
Typical of the limbs, are broadly cylindrical and are clearly adapted to perform as levers. They develop from at least three centers of ossification: one for the shaft (diaphysis), and one for each extremity (epiphysis)
Have no dimension that greatly exceeds the others. Many are grouped together at the carpus and tarsus, where the multiplication of articulations provides for complex movements and may also diminish concussion. The majority of short bones develop from a single center of ossification: replication of centers generally indicates that the bone represents the fusion of elements distinct in ancestral forms
Are expanded in two directions. The category includes the scapula, the bones of the pelvic girdle, and many of those of the skull. Their broad surfaces afford attachment of large muscle masses and protection to underlying soft parts
Three major categories of joints
The bones are united by dense connective tissues
The bones are united by cartilage
A fluid-filled cavity intervenes between the bones.
Immoveable and rigid joints, cartilaginous joints and synovial joints were once classed together and called this
These joints move freely. Synovial joints were formerly termed this.
Most fibrous joints occur in the skull and are called this. The narrow strips of fibrous tissue that outline and unite the margins of the bones represent the surviving part of the originally continuous membrane in which the separate ossification centers appeared.
The facing areas of two bones are joined by connective tissue ligaments.