Philosophy Chapter 1
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What is logic?
Logic is the organized body of knowledge that evaluates arguments.
A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are claimed to provide support for the conclusion. The premises either do or do not support the conclusion.
Therefore, thus, consequently, accordingly, so, for this reason, hence, it follows that, as a result...
What are Premise Indicators?
Since, as indicated by, because, for, in that, given that, seeing that, for the reason that, owing to...
Define Syllogistic logic
Kind of logic in which the fundamental elements are terms and arguments are evaluated as good OR bad
Simple Noninferential Passages, what are the 4 main components?
- 1. Warning- Expression to put someone on guard
- 2. Piece of advice- Expression that makes recommendation about future conduct\
- 3. Opinion- Expression about what someone believes
- 4. Loosely associated statement- About general subject which lack a claim that one of them is proved by others.
Begins with a topic sentence followed by 1+ sentences that can be taken as an argument based on if following sentences are to prove topic sentence or develop it.
An expression involving one or more examples that is intended to show what something means or how it is done. They don't claim anything is be proved. Those that are taken as arguments are called arguments from example.
- Explanations try to shed light on some event or phenomenon.
- Explanans is the statement/group of statements that purports to do the explaining,
- Explanandum is the statement that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained
What is the main layout of a Conditional Statement?
Is an "if... then.." statement
Component statement immediately following the "if"
Statement following the "then"
Define deductive argument
Argument incorporating the claim that it is impossible for the conclusion to be false when the premises are true.
Define inductive argument
It is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true. Involve probabilistic reasoning.
Deductive argument forms- Based on Mathematics
Conclusion depends on purely arithmetic or geometric computation or measurement.
Deductive argument forms- Argument from Definition
Conclusion is claimed to depend merely on the definition of some word or phrase used in the premise or conclusion.
Deductive argument forms- Categorical Syllogism
Statement begins with the words "all", "no", or "some"
Deductive argument forms- Hypothetical syllogism
Has a conditional statement for one or both of it's premises.
Deductive argument forms- Disjunctive syllogism
Inductive reasoning forms-Prediction
Argument that proceeds from our knowledge of the past to make a claim about the future.
Inductive Reasoning Forms- Argument from Analogy
Argument that depends on the existence of an analogy or similarity between two things.
Inductive Argument Forms- Generalization
- Argument that proceeds the knowledge of a selected sample to some claim about the whole group.
- Ex: If three oranges from the same crate are all tasty and juicy, than all oranges in the crate must be so.
Inductive Argument Forms- From Authority
Argument that concludes something is true because a presumed expert/witness says so.
Inductive Argument Forms-Based on Signs
Argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a sign to make a claim. It makes the conclusion only probable.
Inductive Argument Forms- Causal Inference
Argument that proceeds from knowledge of a cause to a claim about an effect.
True or False?
Arguments where the premises provide absolute support for the conclusion are always deductive.
What is a valid deductive argument?
Argument in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be False given that the premises are True.
Define invalid deductive argument.
A deductive argument where is IS possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are True.
Strong Inductive Argument
I.A. where it is improbable that the conclusion be False given that the premises are True
Weak Inductive Argument
I.A where the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises, even though it's claimed to.
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