child psych

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Author:
jadki1582
ID:
229331
Filename:
child psych
Updated:
2013-08-06 16:32:30
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vocabulary
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  1. Phonology is...
    The sound patterns of a particular language and the rules for combining them.
  2. Semantics are...
    A particular language's system of meaning and the rules for conveying meaning.
  3. Syntax is...
    The rules for forming sentences in a particular language.
  4. Prelinguistic phase is...
    The period before a child speaks his or her first words.
  5. Cooing is...
    Making repetitive vowel sounds, particularly the uuu sound; the behavior develops early in the prelinguistic period, when babies are between about 1 and 4 months of age.
  6. Babbling is...
    The repetitive vocalizing of consonant-vowel combinations by an infant, typically beginning at about 6 months of age.
  7. Expressive language is...
    Sounds, signs, or symbols used to communicate meaning.
  8. Receptive language is...
    Comprehension of spoken language.
  9. Underextension is...
    The use of words to apply only to specific objects, such as a child's use of the word cup to refer only to one particular cup.
  10. Overextension is...
    The inappropriate use of a word to designate an entire category of objects, such as when a child uses the word kitty to refer to all animate objects.
  11. Fast-mapping is...
    The ability to categorically link new words to real world referents.
  12. Constraint is...
    As used in discussions of language development, an assumption that is presumed to be built in or learned early (a "default option") by which a child figures out what words refer to. Examples include the principle of contrast and the whole object constraint.
  13. Principle of contrast is...
    The assumption that every word has a different meaning, which leads a child to assume that two or more different words refer to different objects.
  14. Holophrase is...
    A combination of a gesture and a single word that conveys more meaning than just the word alone; often seen and heard in children between 12 and 18 months old.
  15. telegraphic speech is...
    Term used by Roger Brown to describe the earliest sentences created by most children, which sound a bit like telegrams because they include key nouns and verbs but generally omit all other words and grammatical inflections.
  16. Overregularization is...
    Young children's applications of basic rules to irregular words.
  17. Infant directed speech is...
    The simplified, higher pitched speech that adults use with infants and young children.
  18. Mean length of utterance is...
    The average number of meaningful units in a sentence. Each basic word is one meaningful unit, as is each inflection.
  19. Pragmatic marker is...
    Tells something about the feeling or the context of what is being said.
  20. Phonological awareness is...
    Understanding of the rules governing the sound of a language as well as knowledge of the connection between sounds and the way they are represented in written language.
  21. Invented spelling is...
    A strategy young children with good phonological awareness skills use when they write.
  22. Systematic and explicit phonics is...
    Planned, specific instruction in sound letter correspondences.
  23. Whole language approach is...
    An approach to reading instruction that places more emphasis on the meaning of written language than on its structure.
  24. Balanced approach is...
    Reading instruction that combines explicit phonics instruction with other strategies for helping children acquire literacy.
  25. English language learners are...
    School children who do not speak English well enough to function in English only classes.
  26. Bilingual education is...
    As practices in the U.S., a school program for students who are not proficient in English in which instruction in basic subject matter is given in the children's native language during the first 2 or 3 years of schooling, with a gradual transition to full English instruction over several years.
  27. Structured immersion is...
    An alternative to traditional bilingual education used in classrooms in which all children speak the same non-English native language. All basic instruction is in English, paced so that the children can comprehend, with the teacher translating only when absolutely necessary.
  28. English as a second language is...
    An alternative to bilingual education; children who are not proficient in English attend academic classes taught entirely in English but then spend several hours in a separate class to receive English language instruction.
  29. Submersion is...
    An approach to education of non English speaking students in which they are assigned to a classroom where instruction is given in English and are given no supplemental language assistance; also known as the "sink or swim" approach.

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