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Breakthrough Equation
y = ƒ(x) + ε
 y = the outcome or result
 X = the input, factors, or pieces needed
 ƒ = the function {how input → output}
 ε = the presence of error

The Principle of determinism

Margin of Error
 p = Estimate of percentage of respondents answering a question
 n = Number of respondents that answered the question
 The formula involves three basic steps:
 1. The amount of variability in the sample denoted by p
 2. The standard degree of precision of a 95% confidence interval
 3. The sample size denoted by n

Goal of Analysis
Solving for
Y is the measure of output
Y is a function of a series of Xs, The factors affecting Y are a series of Xs.

Calculating Percentile
 1. Put all numbers of the data set in numerical order
 2. Multiply k% by the total number of numbers n {if you want to know the 90^{th} percentile and you have 25 numbers in the set, you multiply 0.90 x 25 = 22.5}
 3. Take that result and round up to the nearest whole number {23}
 4. Count the numbers from left to right {lowest to highest} until you reach the value for from step 3 {Your result would be the 23^{rd} number in the series}

Standard Error of Sample Means
 σ = Population standard deviation
 (you can use s  sample Standard Deviation)
n = sample size (should be at least 30)

