# Notes

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 Author: RocketRN ID: 229378 Filename: Notes Updated: 2013-08-17 19:49:35 Tags: Notes Folders: Description: Notes Show Answers:

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1. Steps of the project definition process
• 1. Determine the Y {what needs to be improved
• 2. Identify the associated processes and locations
• 3. Determine the baseline performance for each Y
• 4. Identify the cost and impact of problem
• 5. Write the problem statement
• 6. Write the objective statement
• 7. Identify candidates for project team
• 8. Obtain approvals and launch
2. Savings Categories
• Hard Savings - reduced expenses
• Soft Savings - happy customers buy more
• Potential savings - savings after implemetation
3. SIPOC Steps
{Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs, Customers}

• - Categorizing the process
• - Categorizing the outputs
• - Defining the outputs by their name, title, or organizational entity
• - Defining the customer requirements
• - Defining the inputsCategorizing the sources   of the inputs
4. Fishbone Diagrams

Cause and Effect Diagram

Ishikawa Diagram
• Identifies 6 Categories:
• Measure
• Materials
• Men
• Methods       {operating procedures}
• Machines        {equipment}
• Mother Nature {environment}
5. Steps in Statistical Significance Testinng
• - Form the research Hypothesis
• - Form the Null Hypothesis
• - Identify a probability of error level
• - Identify and calculate the test for statistical significance
• - Define the results
6. Chi-square Test
The Chi-square test uses three types of analysis:

Goodness of Fit It determines if the sample being used was taken from the population.

Test for Homogeneity It is based on the proposition that population is homogeneous in character.

Test for Independence It takes into consideration the null hypothesis.
7. Design of Experiments Tools
• Factorial Designs - help to analyze the effect of multiple factors on the process or the product
• Response Surface Designs -appraise the relationship between one or more response variables and set of experimental variables
• Taguchi Designs -These experiments help to locate the settings that aid in the consistency of the product or service over a variety of conditions.
8. Project Scope
Must include:

• Project Leader {Black Belt/ Green Belt}
• The Mentor/Master Black Belt
• Project Commencement Date
• Projected Project Conclusion Date
9. Product Attribute Classifications
• Basic/Threshold Attributes -are those, which the customer normally assumes to be present in the product
• Performance/Linear Attributes -The presence of performance attributes is directly proportional to customer satisfaction
• Exciters/Delighters -These are hidden attributes which delight the customer and lead to high levels of satisfaction if they are present, but do not cause any dissatisfaction if the product lacks this feature
10. Survey Construction

{Measure of the Survey}
• Open-ended questions
• Ranking Questions
• Fill-in-the blank
• Yes/No
• Likert’s scale - 1-5 is better than 1-10
• Semantic differentials - very good and very bad.
11. Survey Construction Steps
• 1. Develop measure of survey
• 2. Design the Samples - how many people
• 3. Develop the questionnaire
• 4. Pilot Study - test small group of people
• 5. Produce final questionnaire
• 6. Dispatch Sample {mailings}
• 7. Collect completed questionnaires
• 8. Collate and reduce data to enable analysis
• 9. Analyze the data
12. Critical to Quality Tree Steps
1. Identify the Customer

2. Identify the Customer's Needs

3. Identify the first set of requirements for this need {2 or 3 measures}

4. Try to take each level 2 element to another degree

5. Validate the requirements with the customer
13. The Project Charter Should Include
- A full account stating the motive of undertaking the project

-The final product of the process/project and its characteristics

-The approval to apply the various resources available to the project/process
14. A good Six Sigma Project should have
-They have to be given the go ahead by the management

-They should be in tangent with the organization's goals

-They should have clearly demarcated goals

-They should be of manageable size
15. Important steps in developing a Process Map
• - Select a process to be mapped
• - Define the process
• - Map the primary process
• - Map alternative path
• - Map inspection points
• - Use map to improve the process
16. Steps for Interrelationship Diagram
1. The group has to agree on the particular issue or question.

2. Write down the all the factors on chits of paper.

3. Link each factor to all others. An arrow also known as “influence arrow” to link related factors can be used.

4. Draw the “influence arrows” from the factors that influence to those which are influenced.

5. If two factors influence each other, the arrow should be drawn to reflect the stronger influence.

6. Count the arrows.

7. The elements with the most outgoing arrows will be root causes or drivers.

8. The ones with the most incoming arrows will be key outcomes or results.
17. Tree Diagram Uses
Tree diagrams are used to break down a large idea, problem or solution into smaller and more manageable parts. This helps to understand the problem or implement the solutions more effectively
18. Matrix Shapes
• L-shaped matrix relates two set of elements with each other, and sometimes one set of elements with itself. The elements are compared by placing them in the first row and top column.
• T-shaped matrix relates three set of elements in such a way that sets X and Y are related to Z, but X and Y are not related to each other.
• Y-shaped matrix also relates three set of elements in such a way that each set is related to the other two set of elements. Suppose X and Y are related to Z, then X and Y must also be related to each other.
• X-shaped matrix relates four set of elements and each set is related to two other set of elements in a circular manner.
• C-shaped matrix relates three set of elements and that too simultaneously, in a 3-dimensional manner.
19. Common Symbols in Matrix Charts
20. Key Ojectives of the Measure Phase
-  Identify key measures, make a data collection plan and execute the same

- Establish current process capability, improvement and goal

-  Display variation
21. A Data Collection Plan Includes
• A list of questions, which should be answered by the data collected

• A brief overview of the project, along with the problem statement

• Determining the data type which will be suitable for the data a process is generating

• Determining the number of iterations of the data collected that will be enough to present the change in the chart

• A list of the measures to be taken, once the data has been collected
22. Types of Data
- Attribute Data {Category Data} - cannot be broken down into smaller units             ie: medium + large doesn't yield a value

Variable Data - {Continuous Data} - data that can have any value on a continuous scale
23. Steps to creating a Trend Chart
• - Data Gathering
• - Data Organizing
• - Preparing the chart
• - Interpreting the chart
24. Types of Attribute Control Charts
• C- Chart - This control chart deals with the number of defects and nonconformities
• produced by a manufacturing process
• P-Charts - This control chart deals with the proportion or a fraction of a defective product
• U-Charts - chart which handles defects per unit.  The average number of nonconformity per unit of product is plotted.
• X-Bar Charts - a set of control charts for variable data. This chart is advantageous when changes in mean value are to be shown.
25. Three Types of Probability Sampling
• Simple Random Sampling - each element in the sample space has an equal change of getting selected
• Stratified Sampling - non homogeneous data is divided into homogeneous strata. Each strata gets a random sampling.
• Systematic Sampling - Each nth element is selected from the sample space. n=number in population/number in sample
• Clustered Sampling - all units are grouped into clusters and a number of clusters are selected randomly.
26. The logical way to initiate analysis:
• • list all the possible factors of the problem
• • segment and stratify these factors
• • prioritize the list of vital few factors
• • verify and quantify the root causes of variation
27. Analysis can be done in two ways:
In the Measure phase when the goal if the team is to improve effectiveness {data analysis}

In the Define Phase if the goal is to improve efficiency {process analysis}
28. Categories of Non-value adding steps
In-house failures: These are procedures involving rectification of errors or defects in a process. These usually begin with the word ‘re’. They are signs of in-house failures. For e.g. retest, recall etc.

Peripheral failures: These are procedures involving rectification of errors or defects pointed out by the customers.

Control/ inspection: These are procedures involving reviewing, checking, verifying, the previous or the value adding steps. They are considered as non-value adding steps.

Delays or hold up: These are the most common non value-adding step. These could be hold up in a process or waiting for delivery of the supplies.

Groundwork time: These are procedures, which set up the process for following activity.

Moves or shifts: It involves moving of the parts from one place to another to get them assembled, build, or moving the finished parts to the warehouse or stockroom for storage. It is a non value-adding step. There is also the possibility of damage to the finished product in this step.
29. Rot Cause Analysis Goal
to identify the most specific underlying reasons, which are responsible for the problem. This will help in arriving at suggestions and recommendations to improve it.
30. Steps of Root Cause Analysis
• Open
• 1. Brainstorming
• 2. Cause and effect Diagram (Fish-bone)

• Narrow
• 1. Clarification and Duplication
• 2. Multi-Voting {group prioritizes brainstormed ideas}
• 3. Five Why Diagram - gets to the root cause

• Close
• 1. Pareto Charts
31. Types of Correlations
Strong Correlation - almost all the points fall on the line.

Moderate Correlation - an average number of points fall along the line

No Correlation - all points are randomly scattered
32. Run Charts

{Line Graphs}
-Run charts are basically used for keeping a check on the process’ performance.

-Run charts are useful in discovering the patterns that occur over time.

-Run charts are easy to interpret; any one can guess from the chart’s behavior whether the process’ performance is normal or abnormal.
33. Steps to a Hypothesis Test
Create Null Hypothesis (H0) - the problem is due to a random chance

Create Alternate Hypothesis (H1) - created if it can be statistically proven that the H0 is false

Identify a Test Statistic - the quantity calculated from the data values that will be the subject of the test

Obtain the Null Distribution - the sample distribution of the test statistic provided that H0 is true.

Comparing the observed statistic to the H0 - H0 is rejected as unlikely if the test statistic falls in a satisfactorily questionable area of H0. H0 is not rejected if the test statistic falls within the scale of normal values depicted by the null distribution.

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