Ocular Pharmacology

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Author:
ketch22
ID:
229380
Filename:
Ocular Pharmacology
Updated:
2013-08-07 19:18:30
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ophthalmalogic ophthalmic ocular eye COA pharmacology
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Description:
Opthalmic Medical Assisting 5th ed. Chapter 6
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  1. 7 categories of glaucoma medications
    • beta-adrenergic blockers
    • adrenergic stimulating agents
    • carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    • alpha2¬†selective agonists
    • prostaglandin analogs
    • hyperosmotics
    • combinations
  2. mydriatics: effect & mechanism of action & possible side effects
    • pupillary dilation
    • stimulate iris muscles
    • stinging, photophobia, headache, increased BP, acute angle-closure glaucoma attack
  3. cycloplegics: effect & mechanism of action (2) & possible side effects
    • pupillary dilation
    • paralyze sphincter muscle; paralyze ciliary muscle
    • photosensitivity, dry mouth, fever, increased heart rate, hallucinations, disorientation, bizarre behavior, acute angle-closure glaucoma attack
  4. 3 uses of cycloplegics
    • treatment of uveitis
    • prevent accomodation for dilated exam
    • treatment of postoperative inflammation
  5. examples of cycloplegics
    • atropine
    • homatropine
    • tropicamide
    • cyclopentolate
    • scopolamine
  6. 3 common types of dye
    • fluorescein
    • lissamine green
    • rose bengal
  7. administration routes of fluorescein & their uses
    • topical: find defects in tear film or corneal epithelium; find aqueous humor leaks
    • injection: evaluation (& imaging) of retinal blood vessels
  8. 2 reasons anesthetics are not used long-term
    • inhibits healing by delaying the resurfacing of the cornea by the corneal epithelium
    • can disrupt stromal architecture, which can lead to permanent corneal clouding
  9. 2 conditions that can be treated with miotics
    • narrow angle glaucoma attack
    • accomodative strabismus
  10. name 3 miotic drugs
    • pilocarpine
    • carbachol
    • echothiophate
  11. side effects of miotic drops (5)
    • brow ache
    • myopia
    • tearing
    • cataract
    • retinal detachment
  12. osmotics: function & mechanism of action
    • reduce corneal edema
    • draw fluid out through corneal epithelium by osmosis
  13. steroids: definition & purpose
    • hormone from adrenal gland
    • reduce inflammation
    • treat allergic symptoms
  14. 4 conditions for which steroid are contraindicated
    • peptic ulcer
    • hypertension
    • diabetes
    • tuberculosis
  15. NSAIDs can be identified by what suffixes?
    • -nac
    • -profen
  16. side effects of long-term steroid use (gtts & oral)
    • bacterial, fungal, and viral infections
    • glaucoma
    • cataracts
    • oral: increase blood pressure and blood sugar
  17. 2 types of allergy relief drops
    • antihistamine
    • mast cell inhibitor
    • (also available in combinations)
  18. beta-adrenic blockers: mechanism of action & suffix to identify
    • -lols
    • decrease production of aqueous humor
  19. Beta-adrenic blockers are contraindicated for what two conditions?
    • obstructive lung disease (COPD, emphysema, etc)
    • some heart conditions (decreased heart rate is a side effect of these drops)
  20. adrenergic stimulating agents: mechanism of action & name of only remaining drug in its class
    • increase outflow of aqueous humor
    • dipivefrine
  21. 4 side effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    • decreased appetite
    • metallic taste
    • kidney stones
    • tingling of extremities
  22. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: route & mechanism of action
    • oral tablets
    • decrease formation of aqueous humor
  23. suffix that can identify carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    -mide
  24. alpha2 selective agonists: suffix & mechanism of action
    • -dine
    • decrease production rate of aqueous humor
  25. 4 side effects of alpha2 selective agonists
    • itching
    • upper lid elevation
    • mild dilation
    • redness
  26. prostaglandins: suffix & 2 side effects
    • -prost
    • pigmentation of iris & lids
  27. hyperosmotics: route & mechanism of action
    • draw fluid out of aqueous and vitreous humors
    • oral glycerin (osmoglyn)
    • injectable mannitol (osmitrol)
  28. 2 uses of hyperosmotics
    • acute angle closure glaucoma attacks
    • IOP control during surgery

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