Card Set Information
Nursing Research II
Sampling method to recruit specific persons who could provide inside informatoin
Recruitment of participants based on word of mouth or referrals from other participants.
No new information is being obtained and there is a repetition of information.
Researcher is not only an observer but also a participant during data collection.
Recording ideas that come to researchers as they live with the data.
Setting aside personal interpretations to avoid bias.
Simplification of large amounts of data.
Believably of findings.
Application of findings to a different situation.
Findings are reflective of data.
Findings can be substantiated by participants.
Researcher enlists the help of a peer to discuss the data and findings.
When multiple sources of data are compared and the findings hold true.
Researcher shares the results with participants to ensure the findings reflect what participants said.
Documentation of the research process and decision making. ie journaling.
Describing the lived experience to achieve understanding of an experience from participants' perspective.
The perspective of an individual who has experienced the phenomenon.
A method used in anthropology to discover nursing knowledge.
Systematic study and classification of nursing care beliefs, values, and practices in a particular culture.
The person with some authority that facilitates the entry of the researcher into a group.
Printed instruments used to gather numerical data.
A technique to gather data.
Used to assign a numeric value or score a continuum.
Data obtained from biological, chemical, and microbiological phenomena.
biological data variables
BP, cardiac output, and weight
Chemical data measures
electrolytes, hormones and cholesterol, bacterial counts
The lowest level of measurement whereby data are categorized simply into groups.
A continuum of numeric values where the intervals are not meant to be equal.
A continuum of numeric values with equal intervals but lacks an absolute zero.
Highest level of measurement that involves numeric values that begin with an absolute zero and have equal intervals
Levels of measurement
Classifying measurements according to a hierarchy of measurement and the type of statistical tests that are appropriate.
Lowest level of measurement whereby data are categorized simply into groups.
Nominal measurement when only two possible fixed responses exist.
Interval or ratio level data that use a continuum of numeric values with equal intervals.
The difference between the true score and the observed score.
Error that occurs by change during measurement
Error that occurs in the same way with each measurement.
Test to ensure that the instrument measures the concept
Degree to which the observed score and the true score are related.
Threat to external validity when the instrument does not accurately measure the theoretical concepts.
Test for criterion-related validity where a new instrument is administered at the same time as an instrument known to be valid.
Test for criterion-related validity where a new instrument is given at two different times and scores are correlated.
Collection of objectively measurable data that are gathered through the five senses to confirm or refute a hypothesis.
Test for construct validity in which new instruments are administered at the same time as an instrument known to be valid.
Test for construct validity in which new instruments are administered at the same time as an instrument measuring the opposite of the concept.
Test for construct validity in which a new instrument, established instrument of same concept, and established instrument of opposite concept are given at the same time.
Known group testing
Test for construct validity in which new instruments are administered to individuals know to be high or low on the characteristic being measured.
Test for construct validity that is a statistical approach to identify items that group together.
A method for collecting data in person or over the telephone.
A strategy to obtain data from a small group of people using interview questions.
A description of a single or novel event.
Capturing information by watching participants
Plan to determine how the sample will be selected and recruited
A select group of subjects that is representative of all eligible subjects
All elements that meet the study inclusion criteria.
Characteristics that each element must possess to be included in the sample.
Characteristics of elements that will not be included in the sample.
A list of all possible elements in the accessible population.
The selection, assignment, or arrangement of elements by change.
Simple random sampling
Randomly selecting elements from the accessible population.
Stratified random sampling
Selecting elements from an accessible population that has been divided into strata (groups)
Selecting elements from larger to smaller subsets of an accessible population.
Systematic random sampling
Selecting every nth element in the sampling frame.
Method that does not require random selection of elements. Increases bias.
Elements are selected because they are easy to access.
Selection of elements from an accessible population that has been divided into groups.
Individuals either have lived the experience or have expertise in the event or experience being studied.
Recruitment of participant based on referrals from other participants.
Loss of subjects before a study is completed.
Statistical method to determine the sample size that will best detect the effect of the independent variable.
When no new information is being obtained and information is repetitive.
Collection and representation of data that explain characteristics of variables
Analysis of data as the basis for prediction related to the phenomenon of interest.
Measures of central tendency
Mean, median and mode that provide information about the typical case.
The most frequently occurring value in a data set. Nominal-lowest level.
The point at the center of a data set.
Used when the center of a data set is desired.
Mathematical average calculated by adding all values and then dividing by the total number of values.
Very stable, most often used.
Measures of variability
Measures providing information about differences among data within a set.
Measure of variability to determine the number of data values within a specific interval in a normal distribution.
One group pre-test post-test
An outcome study
convenience sampling with randomized group assignment
simple random sampling
data collection methods