Research II

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kbryant86
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229432
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Research II
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2013-08-10 14:58:26
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Research II
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Nursing Research II
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  1. Purposive
    Sampling method to recruit specific persons who could provide inside informatoin
  2. Snowball sampling
    Recruitment of participants based on word of mouth or referrals from other participants.
  3. Data saturation
    No new information is being obtained and there is a repetition of information.
  4. Participant observation
    Researcher is not only an observer but also a participant during data collection.
  5. Memoing
    Recording ideas that come to researchers as they live with the data.
  6. Bracketing
    Setting aside personal interpretations to avoid bias.
  7. Data Reduction
    Simplification of large amounts of data.
  8. Credibility
    Believably of findings.
  9. Transferability
    Application of findings to a different situation.
  10. Dependability
    Findings are reflective of data.
  11. Confirmability
    Findings can be substantiated by participants.
  12. Peer debriefing
    Researcher enlists the help of a peer to discuss the data and findings.
  13. Referential adequancy
    When multiple sources of data are compared and the findings hold true.
  14. Member checks
    Researcher shares the results with participants to ensure the findings reflect what participants said.
  15. Audit trail
    Documentation of the research process and decision making.  ie journaling.
  16. Phenomenology
    Describing the lived experience to achieve understanding of an experience from participants' perspective.
  17. Lived experience
    The perspective of an individual who has experienced the phenomenon.
  18. Ethnoscience
    A method used in anthropology to discover nursing knowledge.
  19. Ethnonursing
    Systematic study and classification of nursing care beliefs, values, and practices in a particular culture.
  20. Gatekeeper
    The person with some authority that facilitates the entry of the researcher into a group.
  21. Questionnaires
    Printed instruments used to gather numerical data.
  22. Observation
    A technique to gather data.
  23. Scales
    Used to assign a numeric value or score a continuum.
  24. Physiological measures
    Data obtained from biological, chemical, and microbiological phenomena.
  25. biological data variables
    BP, cardiac output, and weight
  26. Chemical data measures
    electrolytes, hormones and cholesterol, bacterial counts
  27. Nominal
    The lowest level of measurement whereby data are categorized simply into groups.
  28. Ordinal
    A continuum of numeric values where the intervals are not meant to be equal.
  29. Interval
    A continuum of numeric values with equal intervals but lacks an absolute zero.
  30. Ratio
    Highest level of measurement that involves numeric values that begin with an absolute zero and have equal intervals
  31. Levels of measurement
    Classifying measurements according to a hierarchy of measurement and the type of statistical tests that are appropriate.
  32. Categorical data
    Lowest level of measurement whereby data are categorized simply into groups.
  33. Dichotomous
    Nominal measurement when only two possible fixed responses exist.
  34. Continuous data
    Interval or ratio level data that use a continuum of numeric values with equal intervals.
  35. Measurement error
    The difference between the true score and the observed score.
  36. Random error
    Error that occurs by change during measurement
  37. Systematic error
    Error that occurs in the same way with each measurement.
  38. Content validity
    Test to ensure that the instrument measures the concept
  39. Criterion-related validity
    Degree to which the observed score and the true score are related.
  40. Construct validity
    Threat to external validity when the instrument does not accurately measure the theoretical concepts.
  41. Concurrent validity
    Test for criterion-related validity where a new instrument is administered at the same time as an instrument known to be valid.
  42. Predictive validity
    Test for criterion-related validity where a new instrument is given at two different times and scores are correlated.
  43. Hypothesis testing
    Collection of objectively measurable data that are gathered through the five senses to confirm or refute a hypothesis.
  44. Convergent testing
    Test for construct validity in which new instruments are administered at the same time as an instrument known to be valid.
  45. Divergent testing
    Test for construct validity in which new instruments are administered at the same time as an instrument measuring the opposite of the concept.
  46. Multitrait-multimethod testing
    Test for construct validity in which a new instrument, established instrument of same concept, and established instrument of opposite concept are given at the same time.
  47. Known group testing
    Test for construct validity in which new instruments are administered to individuals know to be high or low on the characteristic being measured.
  48. Factor analysis
    Test for construct validity that is a statistical approach to identify items that group together.
  49. Interviews
    A method for collecting data in person or over the telephone.
  50. Focus groups
    A strategy to obtain data from a small group of people using interview questions.
  51. Case studies
    A description of a single or novel event.
  52. Direct observations
    Capturing information by watching participants
  53. Sampling plan
    Plan to determine how the sample will be selected and recruited
  54. Sample
    A select group of subjects that is representative of all eligible subjects
  55. Target population
    All elements that meet the study inclusion criteria.
  56. Inclusion criteria
    Characteristics that each element must possess to be included in the sample.
  57. Exclusion criteria
    Characteristics of elements that will not be included in the sample.
  58. Sampling frame
    A list of all possible elements in the accessible population.
  59. Randomization
    The selection, assignment, or arrangement of elements by change.
  60. Simple random sampling
    Randomly selecting elements from the accessible population.
  61. Stratified random sampling
    Selecting elements from an accessible population that has been divided into strata (groups)
  62. Cluster sampling
    Selecting elements from larger to smaller subsets of an accessible population.
  63. Systematic random sampling
    Selecting every nth element in the sampling frame.
  64. Non-probability
    Method that does not require random selection of elements.  Increases bias.
  65. Convenience sampling
    Elements are selected because they are easy to access.
  66. Quota sampling
    Selection of elements from an accessible population that has been divided into groups.
  67. Purposive sampling
    Individuals either have lived the experience or have expertise in the event or experience being studied.
  68. Snowball sampling
    Recruitment of participant based on referrals from other participants.
  69. Attrition rate
    Loss of subjects before a study is completed.
  70. Power analysis
    Statistical method to determine the sample size that will best detect the effect of the independent variable.
  71. Data saturation
    When no new information is being obtained and information is repetitive.
  72. Descriptive statistics
    Collection and representation of data that explain characteristics of variables
  73. Inferential statistics
    Analysis of data as the basis for prediction related to the phenomenon of interest.
  74. Measures of central tendency
    Mean, median and mode that provide information about the typical case.
  75. Mode
    The most frequently occurring value in a data set.   Nominal-lowest level.
  76. Median
    • The point at the center of a data set.
    • Ordinal.
    • Used when the center of a data set is desired.
  77. Mean
    • Mathematical average calculated by adding all values and then dividing by the total number of values.
    • Very stable, most often used.
  78. Measures of variability
    Measures providing information about differences among data within a set.
  79. Standard deviation
    Measure of variability to determine the number of data values within a specific interval in a normal distribution.
  80. Correlational
  81. Descriptive design
  82. One group pre-test post-test
  83. Comparison Study
  84. Quasi-experimental
  85. experimental design
  86. intervention study
  87. An outcome study
  88. ethnographic study
  89. historical study
  90. convenience sampling with randomized group assignment
  91. purposive sampling
  92. convenience sampling
  93. simple random sampling
  94. networking sampling
  95. quota sampling
  96. data collection methods

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