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Purposive
Sampling method to recruit specific persons who could provide inside informatoin

Snowball sampling
Recruitment of participants based on word of mouth or referrals from other participants.

Data saturation
No new information is being obtained and there is a repetition of information.

Participant observation
Researcher is not only an observer but also a participant during data collection.

Memoing
Recording ideas that come to researchers as they live with the data.

Bracketing
Setting aside personal interpretations to avoid bias.

Data Reduction
Simplification of large amounts of data.

Credibility
Believably of findings.

Transferability
Application of findings to a different situation.

Dependability
Findings are reflective of data.

Confirmability
Findings can be substantiated by participants.

Peer debriefing
Researcher enlists the help of a peer to discuss the data and findings.

Referential adequancy
When multiple sources of data are compared and the findings hold true.

Member checks
Researcher shares the results with participants to ensure the findings reflect what participants said.

Audit trail
Documentation of the research process and decision making. ie journaling.

Phenomenology
Describing the lived experience to achieve understanding of an experience from participants' perspective.

Lived experience
The perspective of an individual who has experienced the phenomenon.

Ethnoscience
A method used in anthropology to discover nursing knowledge.

Ethnonursing
Systematic study and classification of nursing care beliefs, values, and practices in a particular culture.

Gatekeeper
The person with some authority that facilitates the entry of the researcher into a group.

Questionnaires
Printed instruments used to gather numerical data.

Observation
A technique to gather data.

Scales
Used to assign a numeric value or score a continuum.

Physiological measures
Data obtained from biological, chemical, and microbiological phenomena.

biological data variables
BP, cardiac output, and weight

Chemical data measures
electrolytes, hormones and cholesterol, bacterial counts

Nominal
The lowest level of measurement whereby data are categorized simply into groups.

Ordinal
A continuum of numeric values where the intervals are not meant to be equal.

Interval
A continuum of numeric values with equal intervals but lacks an absolute zero.

Ratio
Highest level of measurement that involves numeric values that begin with an absolute zero and have equal intervals

Levels of measurement
Classifying measurements according to a hierarchy of measurement and the type of statistical tests that are appropriate.

Categorical data
Lowest level of measurement whereby data are categorized simply into groups.

Dichotomous
Nominal measurement when only two possible fixed responses exist.

Continuous data
Interval or ratio level data that use a continuum of numeric values with equal intervals.

Measurement error
The difference between the true score and the observed score.

Random error
Error that occurs by change during measurement

Systematic error
Error that occurs in the same way with each measurement.

Content validity
Test to ensure that the instrument measures the concept

Criterionrelated validity
Degree to which the observed score and the true score are related.

Construct validity
Threat to external validity when the instrument does not accurately measure the theoretical concepts.

Concurrent validity
Test for criterionrelated validity where a new instrument is administered at the same time as an instrument known to be valid.

Predictive validity
Test for criterionrelated validity where a new instrument is given at two different times and scores are correlated.

Hypothesis testing
Collection of objectively measurable data that are gathered through the five senses to confirm or refute a hypothesis.

Convergent testing
Test for construct validity in which new instruments are administered at the same time as an instrument known to be valid.

Divergent testing
Test for construct validity in which new instruments are administered at the same time as an instrument measuring the opposite of the concept.

Multitraitmultimethod testing
Test for construct validity in which a new instrument, established instrument of same concept, and established instrument of opposite concept are given at the same time.

Known group testing
Test for construct validity in which new instruments are administered to individuals know to be high or low on the characteristic being measured.

Factor analysis
Test for construct validity that is a statistical approach to identify items that group together.

Interviews
A method for collecting data in person or over the telephone.

Focus groups
A strategy to obtain data from a small group of people using interview questions.

Case studies
A description of a single or novel event.

Direct observations
Capturing information by watching participants

Sampling plan
Plan to determine how the sample will be selected and recruited

Sample
A select group of subjects that is representative of all eligible subjects

Target population
All elements that meet the study inclusion criteria.

Inclusion criteria
Characteristics that each element must possess to be included in the sample.

Exclusion criteria
Characteristics of elements that will not be included in the sample.

Sampling frame
A list of all possible elements in the accessible population.

Randomization
The selection, assignment, or arrangement of elements by change.

Simple random sampling
Randomly selecting elements from the accessible population.

Stratified random sampling
Selecting elements from an accessible population that has been divided into strata (groups)

Cluster sampling
Selecting elements from larger to smaller subsets of an accessible population.

Systematic random sampling
Selecting every nth element in the sampling frame.

Nonprobability
Method that does not require random selection of elements. Increases bias.

Convenience sampling
Elements are selected because they are easy to access.

Quota sampling
Selection of elements from an accessible population that has been divided into groups.

Purposive sampling
Individuals either have lived the experience or have expertise in the event or experience being studied.

Snowball sampling
Recruitment of participant based on referrals from other participants.

Attrition rate
Loss of subjects before a study is completed.

Power analysis
Statistical method to determine the sample size that will best detect the effect of the independent variable.

Data saturation
When no new information is being obtained and information is repetitive.

Descriptive statistics
Collection and representation of data that explain characteristics of variables

Inferential statistics
Analysis of data as the basis for prediction related to the phenomenon of interest.

Measures of central tendency
Mean, median and mode that provide information about the typical case.

Mode
The most frequently occurring value in a data set. Nominallowest level.

Median
 The point at the center of a data set.
 Ordinal.
 Used when the center of a data set is desired.

Mean
 Mathematical average calculated by adding all values and then dividing by the total number of values.
 Very stable, most often used.

Measures of variability
Measures providing information about differences among data within a set.

Standard deviation
Measure of variability to determine the number of data values within a specific interval in a normal distribution.



One group pretest posttest








convenience sampling with randomized group assignment







