Ch 1-3

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Ch 1-3
2010-06-14 16:56:02

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  1. Disease causing micro organisms, what are they called?
    Pathogens: Micro organisms that do harm. (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae and helminthes)
  2. Microorganisms that recycle nutrients and break down dead material?
    Bacteria and Fungi
  3. Microorganisms that do NOT have a nucleus?
    Prokaryote - microscopic, unicellular organisms, lack nuclei and membrane-bound organells
  4. What is the basic definition of a microorganism?
    A living thing that usually is to small to be seen without magnification, an organism of microscopic size
  5. What makes viruses different from different microorganisms?
    Viruses are microbes, but not cells. They're smaller in size and infect their hosts (cells) in order to reproduce.
  6. Who was the first to make magnifying glasses to see microorganisms?
    • Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek 1632-1732
    • First to observe living microbes
    • Single-lens magnified up to 300x
  7. Steps to the scientific method? 4 steps.
    • Form a hypothesis
    • Test hypothesis
    • Evaluate results
    • Offer conclusions
  8. What are Koch postulates?
    Established Koch's postulates - a sequence of experimental steps that verified the germ theory
  9. What goes into making a scientific name?
    • Binomial (scientific) nomenclature
    • Gives each microbe 2 names: Genus - captalized and Species - lowercase
    • Both italicized or underlined exp: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)
    • Inspiration for names is extremely varied and often imaginative
    • Taxonomy - formal system for organizing, classifying and naming living things.
  10. What is the scientific name for worms?
    Helminths or Annelid
  11. What are the qualities of a prokaryotes?
    Prokaryote - microscopic, unicellular organisms, lack nuclei and membrane-bound organelles
  12. What is something that occupies space and has mass?
    • Matter
    • Matter is also composed of atoms
  13. What are electrons?
    They are negatively charged subatomic particle that is distributed around the nucleaus of an atom. Their pathways are called orbital and occurs in levels called sheifs
  14. What are cations?
    • Cations are positively charged ions
    • Anions are negatively charged ions
  15. What are isotopes?
    Isotopes - variant forms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons (atoms have slightly different atomic masses)
  16. Definitions of elements, molecules and compounds?
    • Element - pure substances with a characteristic number of protons, neutrons and electrons with predicatable chemical behaviors
    • Molecule- a chemical substance that results from the combination of two or more atoms
    • Compounds - molecules that are combinations of two or more different elements
  17. What are polar molecules?
    • A molecule with unequal distribution of charges is termed polar and shows polarity meaning it has a positive and negative pole or poles.
    • When there is no great attraction of electrons it is called non-polar. ie. O2, methane, lipids
  18. What is the important solvent of the body?
  19. What makes up enzymes?
    Globular Proteins- long linear chains of amino acids
  20. What is ATP?
    • Adenosine triphosphate- Nucleotide - adenine, ribose, three phosphates
    • Function - transfer and storage of energy
  21. What are the qualities of enzymes?
    Enzymes serve as the catalysts for all chemical reactions in cells and nearly every reaction requires a different enzyme
  22. What are the alpha helix and beta plated sheets?
    The secondary develops when CO- and NH- groups on adjacent amino acids form hydrogen bonds. This action folds the chain into local configurations called the Alpha Helix and Beta plated sheet. Most proteins have both types of secondary structures
  23. What are the different kinds of bonds: covalent, ionic, hydrogen?
    • Covalent bonds - electrons shared among atoms. Polar covalent bonds = unequal sharing. Nonpolar covalent bonds = equal sharing
    • Ionic bonds - electrons are transferred to one atom forming positivley charged cations and negatively charged ions
    • Hydrogen bonds - weak bonds between hydrogen and other atoms
  24. What are the 5 I's to manipulate, grow, examine and characterize microorganisms in the lab?
    • Inolculation - intro of a smaple into a contatiner of media to produce a culture of obserable growth
    • Isolation - seperating one species from another
    • Incubation - under conditions that allow growth
    • Inspection - macroscopically observe colonies for characteristics ie. color, size and texture
    • Identification - determine type of microbe, usually to level of species
  25. What are the different types of media to grow microbes?
    • Chemical - synthetic make up that is chemically defined (pure) or non synthetic more then one defined compound.
    • Functional - general purpose, enriched, selective, differential, anaerobic growth
  26. What is a pure culture?
    Grows only single known species of microorganisms
  27. Microscopes - definition of magnification and resolving power?
    • Magnification - ability to enlarge objects
    • Resolving power- ability to show detail
  28. In terms of flow of light through a microscope, at what stage do you get real images?
    • 1. Light leaving the specimen enters the objective lens forms the magnified primary or real image. We do not see this image.
    • 2. The real image is projected to the ocular where it is magnified again to form the virtual image. This image is received by the lens and retina of eye.
  29. How does one calculate total magnification?
    power of objective power X power of ocular = total magnification
  30. What components make up resolution?
    Resolution defines the capacity to distinguish or seperate two adjacent objects - resolving power. Made of wavelength of light/ 2x numerical aperture of object lens. The shorter the wavelength the better the resolution
  31. What type of microscope gives you the greatest resolution?
    • Transmission electron microscopes - TEM
    • Scanning electron microscopes - SEM
  32. What are the different type of stains? 4.
    • Basic dyes - cationic, positively charged, acidic (anionic) dye negative charge
    • Positive staining - surfaces of microbes are negatively charged and attract basic dyes
    • Negative staining - microbe repels dye, the dye stains the background
    • Simple staining - require a single dye and are uncomplicated

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