Env Science Final
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Env Science Final
environmental science final
The environment is described as ______
interactions between the physical, living, and the human world
a major change in scientific thinking based on new discoveries and observations
What piece of the scientific process is critical to ensuring results are valid?
Describe Linear change
linear change remains constant
An important characteristic of exponential change is _________.
Exponential change is not sustainable
Human consumption of crude oil has changed ______ over the last 100 years.
Issued a warning in the late 1700s concerning the potential threat of unchecked population growth on civilization.
What are the major reasons Malthus' predictions have not come to pass?
advances in agriculture and health care
"Tragedy of the Commons"
individuals acting independently and rationally consulting their own self interest will ultimately deplete a shared resource.
In poor countries, ____ is usually low, and ____ is usually high.
per capita income ... infant mortality rate.
Why is poverty such a problem?
poor people make decisions for a short term survival and not long term sustainability
What are the two most powerful countries in terms of income, economics, industrialization, and technology?
Japan, and the United States
What does a tool allow humans to do?
Describe hunter- gatherer cultures
intimate interactions with the environment
Describe the Industrial Revolution
-Increased average per capita consumption
-Increased ability to utilize the Earth's resources
-Increased economic growth
iPods and cell phones are associated with...
The information revolution
The ability to meet humanity's current needs without compromising the ability of future generations
would state nature deserves to exist for its own sake, regardless of its usefulness to us.
Rachel Carson started the Modern Environmentalism movement assessing the problems associated with increasing pollution from chemicals and the resulting effects on the environment
first scientifically- trained forester to head the US forest service
During which point in the history of environmentalism would laws like the Clean Water Act have been passed?
Pollution, Health, and Ecology
Which country require the most land per person to support the average citizen?
protons, neutrons, and electrons
molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons
atoms with strict and specific interactions between them
When a substance is heated, it expands. How does this affect the density?
compound that contains carbon
Law of Conservation
-We can't throw anything away, because there is no away
-There will always be waste of some sort
-Everything must go somewhere
The natural tendency of matter to deteriorate from high quality to low quality
Example of low- quality energy
heat from your computer monitor
In an energy transformation, some of the energy always ends up as
heat energy that flows into the environment
Matter_____ and energy ____ in the environment
Photosynthesis converts ____ energy into ___ energy
releases energy from the food we eat
Post Consumer Content
Is an indication of how many times and item has been recycled
______ always results from use of resources
Emissions testing of cars tests for what type of pollutant
Environmental impact is....
the product of population, resource use and environmental effects.
What is the highest point in N.America?
What is the asthenosphere?
a plastic region in the mantle
Layers of the Earth in order
crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
The most common element in the crust is..
material from the crust that is inorganic, has specific properties, and a crystal structure
cooled molten rock
processes that produce metamorphic rocks like marble and slate
the breakdown of rocks that results from acid
the movement of sediments
Landslides, mudslides, subsidence
mass wasting event that involves the sinking of relatively flat areas of the crust
measures the strength of an earth quake
measures the intensity of an earthquake
Place on the earth that is directly above the actual release of an earthquake
large ocean waves
Most common gas in the troposphere
Barometric pressure is higher when the air is..
warm and moist
relatively cool, sinking air
widespread thunderstorms followed by clearing skies and cooler temperatures
indication of strength of tornadoes
Saffir- Simpson scale
based on anticipated storm surge, wind speed, and minimum barometric pressure
natural control system for floods
the 30 year average of temperature and precipitation
trapping of heat energy in the troposphere
What do scientists say about global warming
it is a problem now , and is likely to intensify in the future
all interacting population a given area at a given time
Energy does what through the ecosystem
the place where organic forms of matter are found in the living part of the ecosystem
the role of vegetation in the cycling of water in the ecosystem
kingdom of organism key to the nitrogen cycle
factor furthest from the optimum
net primary productivity
gross photosynthesis - plant respiration
happens when niches overlap
both species in a symbiotic relationship benefit from the relationship
optimal foraging theory
looking for the easiest possible way to hunt
the main limiting factor affecting the distribution of biomes
the distribution of forest, grassland, and desert biomes is determined by
temperate deciduous forest
soil rich in organic matter, deciduous trees, shrubs, and small mammals
permafrost and a short growing season
ocean zone in total darkness
in a river ecosystem, the nutrient level will be the lowest in the source zone
keeps most populations in balance with their environments
a high biotic potential can potentially lead to
cockroaches reproduce early and often, the population can increase rapidly if conditions are favorable, this is typical of organisms that are
area that has been disturbed, but the soil is still intact
population growth equation
births+immigration - deaths+ emigration
high availability of jobs in an urban movement
in the U.S has been encouraged by cheap gasoline and cars
does response curves are used to determing
ED50 of a toxin