Digestive Alimentary system

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Digestive Alimentary system
2013-08-07 23:12:50
Physiology pathology

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  1. What are the five layers of the GIT from Superficial to Deep?
    • serosa
    • longitudinal muscle
    • circular muscle
    • submucosal
    • mucosal
  2. What electrical activity is produced by the interstitial cells of caja?
    Slow wave
  3. Stimulation of what nerve in the GIT causes increased tonic contraction, increased intensity and rate of contractions, increased velocity of contraction?
    • Myenteric plexus (Auerbach's)
    • Lies between smooth muscle layers
  4. What GI innervation controls secretion, absorption, blood flow, contraction of submucosal layer?
    meissner's plexus (submucosal plexus)
  5. What is the parasympathetic innervation of the GIT?
    • Vagus
    • S2,3,4 (defication reflex)
  6. What is the sympathetic innervation of the GIT?
  7. What part of the nervous system controls the gastrocolic, enterogastric, and colonoileal reflexes?
    prevertebral sympathetic ganglia
  8. What GI reflexes are controlled by the spinal cord and brainstem?
    • Gastroduodenal
    • pain
    • defecation reflex
  9. Where is gastrin secreted, by what cells, what stimulates secretion, what is the function
    • G cells (antrum, duodenum, jejunem)
    • Stimulated by: protein, distension
    • Function: stimulates gastric acid secretion and mucosal growth
  10. Cholecystokinin: What cells, where, what stimulates secretion, function
    • I cells
    • Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
    • Protein, fat, acid
    • Stimulates Gallbladder emptying, pancreatic secretion of bicarbonate
    • Inhibits gastric motility
  11. Secretin: what cells where, what stimulates secretion, function
    • S cells
    • Small intestines
    • gastric acid emptying from stomach
    • stimulates pancretic secretion of bicarbonate
    • inhibits GIT motility
  12. Gastric Inhibitory Peptide: what cells, where, what stimulates secretion, function
    • K cells
    • small intestines
    • fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates
    • Stimulates insulin secretion (hormone dependent)
    • Inhibits gastric motility
  13. Motlin: what cells, where, what stimulates secretion, function
    • M cellsĀ 
    • stomach Duodenum
    • released in 90 min intervals when fasting
    • interdigestive myoelectric complex (intense peristalsis
  14. What is the law of the gut?
    peristaltic reflex and anal direction of movement
  15. How much does the volume of blood to the GIT increase during absorption?
    Eight fold
  16. What is the general molecular makeup of monosaccharides?
  17. What are the three different monosaccharides?
    • glucose
    • fructose
    • Galactose
  18. What disaccharide is comprised of 2 glucose molecules?
  19. What disaccharide is comprised of a fuctose and glucose?
  20. What disaccharide is comprised of a glucose and galactose molecules
  21. What makes up the plant cell wall (comprised of glucose chains)
  22. What is the backbone of carbohydrates
  23. Main ingredient in cereal fibers?
  24. effect of insoluble fiber on GIT
    • Accelerate GIT
    • Increase fecal weight
  25. What is the effect of soluble fiber on the GIT
    • Delays GIT
    • Delay glucose absorption
    • Lower blood cholersterol
  26. What digestive enzyme in the mouth breaks down starch
  27. What part of the GIT secretes enzymes sucrase and lactase and what is their function
    • Small intestines
    • Breakdown polysarccharides into disaccharides and glucose
  28. What process does the large intestine use to breakdown of the chyme
  29. What process is used to move glucose and galactose into the blood stream?
    Active Transport
  30. What process is used to move fructose into the blood stream
    facilitated diffusion
  31. What organ secretes the digestive enzyes trypsin, carboxypolypeptidase, elastase
  32. What is the function of trypsin
    digest protein into small polypeptides
  33. what is the function of carboxypolypeptidase
    Cleaves amino acids from polypeptides
  34. What is the function of elastase
    digest elastin fibers
  35. What is the end product of fat digestion
    free fatty acids and 2 monoglycerides
  36. What is the role of bile salts in fat digestion
    • accelerate digestion
    • transportion free fatty acids and monoglycarides
  37. What process is used to absorb water
  38. How is sodium transported into the blood stream
    active transport
  39. How is chloride transported into the blood stream
  40. How are carbohydrates absorbed
    • active transport and facilitated diffusion
    • Only monosaccharides are absorbed
  41. What membrane are proteins absorbed through and what form must they be in
    • Luminal membrane
    • Dipeptides, tripeptides, free amino acids
  42. What does the large intestine absorb and where
    • Chloride, sodium, H2O
    • Proximal 1/2 large intestines
  43. Of the 1500 mL of chyme that enters the the large intestines how much is passed as fecal matter
  44. A back and forth movement that breaks apart food
  45. What is the function of goblet cells
    secrete mucus
  46. Function of pits/crypts of lieberkuhn
    • secrete mucus
    • absorption of water
  47. Function of deep tubular glands
    • production of acid
    • production of pepsinogen
  48. what salivary gland secretes mucin
    • submandibular
    • sublingual
  49. what salivary gland secretes amalayse
  50. What are the primary secretions of the submandibular gland
    • ptyalin
    • mucus
    • extracellular fluid
  51. what salivary secretion has antibacterial properties
  52. what gastric cells secrete HCL
    parietal cells
  53. What gastric cells secrete pepsinogen
    chief cells
  54. what is needed to activate pepsin
  55. What do the neck cells of the stomach secrete
  56. what do the enterochromaffin cells of the stomach secrete
  57. What stimulates histamine secretion by enterochromaffin cells in the stomach
    Secretion of gastrin from G cells (pylorus)
  58. What proteolytic enzymes are secreted by the pancreas
    • Trypsin
    • Chymotrypsin (activated by trypsin)
    • Carbonypolypeptidase (same)
  59. What enzyme is secreted by the pancreas to digest sugars
  60. What are the three secretions of the pancreas for digesting fats
    • Lipase
    • cholesterol esterase
    • phospholipase
  61. What enzyme causes emptying of the gallbladder
  62. What is the main stimulator of the pancreatic digestive secretions
  63. What stimulates brunner's glands
    • Tactile stimulation
    • vagal stimulation
    • secretin
  64. What do brunners glands secrete and where are they located
    • Alkaline mucus
    • Duodenum
  65. how many lobes are in the average liver
    50-100 thousand
  66. How much blood flows from the portal vein to the liver sinuses each min?
    1350 mL or 27% resting COP
  67. How much blood can the liver store
    450mL 10 total volume of blood
  68. What percent of cholesterol is synthesized into bile salts in the liver
  69. How long can vitamins A, D, B12 be stored in the liver
    • A: 10mo
    • D: 3-4mo
    • B12: 1yr +
  70. What form is iron stored in the liver?
  71. What vitamin is necessary for the liver to produce coagulation substances?
    Vitamin K
  72. What is the difference in plasma bilirubin between hemolytic jaundice and obstructive jaundice
    • Hemolytic: free form bilirubin (in plasma)
    • Obstructive jaundice: conjugated (plasma)
    • Vanden bergh test