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What are the five layers of the GIT from Superficial to Deep?
- longitudinal muscle
- circular muscle
What electrical activity is produced by the interstitial cells of caja?
Stimulation of what nerve in the GIT causes increased tonic contraction, increased intensity and rate of contractions, increased velocity of contraction?
- Myenteric plexus (Auerbach's)
- Lies between smooth muscle layers
What GI innervation controls secretion, absorption, blood flow, contraction of submucosal layer?
meissner's plexus (submucosal plexus)
What is the parasympathetic innervation of the GIT?
- S2,3,4 (defication reflex)
What is the sympathetic innervation of the GIT?
What part of the nervous system controls the gastrocolic, enterogastric, and colonoileal reflexes?
prevertebral sympathetic ganglia
What GI reflexes are controlled by the spinal cord and brainstem?
- defecation reflex
Where is gastrin secreted, by what cells, what stimulates secretion, what is the function
- G cells (antrum, duodenum, jejunem)
- Stimulated by: protein, distension
- Function: stimulates gastric acid secretion and mucosal growth
Cholecystokinin: What cells, where, what stimulates secretion, function
- I cells
- Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
- Protein, fat, acid
- Stimulates Gallbladder emptying, pancreatic secretion of bicarbonate
- Inhibits gastric motility
Secretin: what cells where, what stimulates secretion, function
- S cells
- Small intestines
- gastric acid emptying from stomach
- stimulates pancretic secretion of bicarbonate
- inhibits GIT motility
Gastric Inhibitory Peptide: what cells, where, what stimulates secretion, function
- K cells
- small intestines
- fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates
- Stimulates insulin secretion (hormone dependent)
- Inhibits gastric motility
Motlin: what cells, where, what stimulates secretion, function
- M cells
- stomach Duodenum
- released in 90 min intervals when fasting
- interdigestive myoelectric complex (intense peristalsis
What is the law of the gut?
peristaltic reflex and anal direction of movement
How much does the volume of blood to the GIT increase during absorption?
What is the general molecular makeup of monosaccharides?
What are the three different monosaccharides?
What disaccharide is comprised of 2 glucose molecules?
What disaccharide is comprised of a fuctose and glucose?
What disaccharide is comprised of a glucose and galactose molecules
What makes up the plant cell wall (comprised of glucose chains)
What is the backbone of carbohydrates
Main ingredient in cereal fibers?
effect of insoluble fiber on GIT
- Accelerate GIT
- Increase fecal weight
What is the effect of soluble fiber on the GIT
- Delays GIT
- Delay glucose absorption
- Lower blood cholersterol
What digestive enzyme in the mouth breaks down starch
What part of the GIT secretes enzymes sucrase and lactase and what is their function
- Small intestines
- Breakdown polysarccharides into disaccharides and glucose
What process does the large intestine use to breakdown of the chyme
What process is used to move glucose and galactose into the blood stream?
What process is used to move fructose into the blood stream
What organ secretes the digestive enzyes trypsin, carboxypolypeptidase, elastase
What is the function of trypsin
digest protein into small polypeptides
what is the function of carboxypolypeptidase
Cleaves amino acids from polypeptides
What is the function of elastase
digest elastin fibers
What is the end product of fat digestion
free fatty acids and 2 monoglycerides
What is the role of bile salts in fat digestion
- accelerate digestion
- transportion free fatty acids and monoglycarides
What process is used to absorb water
How is sodium transported into the blood stream
How is chloride transported into the blood stream
How are carbohydrates absorbed
- active transport and facilitated diffusion
- Only monosaccharides are absorbed
What membrane are proteins absorbed through and what form must they be in
- Luminal membrane
- Dipeptides, tripeptides, free amino acids
What does the large intestine absorb and where
- Chloride, sodium, H2O
- Proximal 1/2 large intestines
Of the 1500 mL of chyme that enters the the large intestines how much is passed as fecal matter
A back and forth movement that breaks apart food
What is the function of goblet cells
Function of pits/crypts of lieberkuhn
- secrete mucus
- absorption of water
Function of deep tubular glands
- production of acid
- production of pepsinogen
what salivary gland secretes mucin
what salivary gland secretes amalayse
What are the primary secretions of the submandibular gland
- extracellular fluid
what salivary secretion has antibacterial properties
what gastric cells secrete HCL
What gastric cells secrete pepsinogen
what is needed to activate pepsin
What do the neck cells of the stomach secrete
what do the enterochromaffin cells of the stomach secrete
What stimulates histamine secretion by enterochromaffin cells in the stomach
Secretion of gastrin from G cells (pylorus)
What proteolytic enzymes are secreted by the pancreas
- Chymotrypsin (activated by trypsin)
- Carbonypolypeptidase (same)
What enzyme is secreted by the pancreas to digest sugars
What are the three secretions of the pancreas for digesting fats
- cholesterol esterase
What enzyme causes emptying of the gallbladder
What is the main stimulator of the pancreatic digestive secretions
What stimulates brunner's glands
- Tactile stimulation
- vagal stimulation
What do brunners glands secrete and where are they located
how many lobes are in the average liver
How much blood flows from the portal vein to the liver sinuses each min?
1350 mL or 27% resting COP
How much blood can the liver store
450mL 10 total volume of blood
What percent of cholesterol is synthesized into bile salts in the liver
How long can vitamins A, D, B12 be stored in the liver
- A: 10mo
- D: 3-4mo
- B12: 1yr +
What form is iron stored in the liver?
What vitamin is necessary for the liver to produce coagulation substances?
What is the difference in plasma bilirubin between hemolytic jaundice and obstructive jaundice
- Hemolytic: free form bilirubin (in plasma)
- Obstructive jaundice: conjugated (plasma)
- Vanden bergh test