micro

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Author:
charflynt1
ID:
22947
Filename:
micro
Updated:
2010-06-10 01:02:50
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chemistry
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review
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  1. List the 3 subatomic particles of an atom
    proton, neutron, electron
  2. Protons have a_______ charge and are located in the ________of an atom.
    positive, nucleus
  3. Neutrons carry no charge and are located in the _____ of an atom.
    nucleus
  4. Electrons carry a _____ charge and are located ________ of the nucleus.
    negative, outside
  5. The number of electrons usually equals the number of
    protons
  6. The first inner shell can contain _____to _____ electrons
    1 to 2
  7. The second shell can contain up to _____ electrons
    8
  8. The third shell can contain up to _____electrons.
    8
  9. Valence electrons are the number of ______ in an atom's outermost shell
    electrons
  10. the atomic number is the number of_______ an atom contains.
    protons
  11. The atomic weight or mass is the number of ________an atom contains.
    protons & neutrons
  12. Isotopes contain the same number of protons, but different number of
    neutrons
  13. If a atom has an atomic number of 12 and an atomic weight of 25, then the neutron number would be______
    13
  14. List several ways isotopes are important in medicine:
    • 1- used to label and trace biological structures
    • 2-radioactive tracers can be used to determine imagery such as DNA in bacteria, body structures, or cancer cells.
  15. List the 4 most abundant elements in living organisms:
    carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
  16. 2 or more atoms joined together create a
    molecule
  17. Covalent Bonds form when 2 atoms ______a pair of electrons.
    share
  18. Ionic bonds occur by either ________or _______an electron (ions). Ionic bonds are held together by _____charges.
    gaining or loosing, opposite
  19. What type of bond does Sodium have?
    Ionic
  20. Which of the following would be an incorrect association?
    A. DNA/molecule
    B. proton/positive
    C. covalent/ions
    D. Phosphorus/atom
    C. covalent/ions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Hydrogen bonds are ______but important to living things.
    weak bonds
  22. List 3 factors which determines a reaction rate:
    • 1-amt of reactants
    • 2-temperature
    • 3-presence of a catalyst
  23. Catalysts ___the rate of a chemical reaction by ____the amt of energy needed for a reaction. Ex: Enzymes.
    increase, lowering
  24. Water is essential for ___and forms about ____of the weight of microorganisms.
    life, 70%
  25. List 7 reasons why water is important:
    • 1- capacity to form ydrogen bonds with other molecules.
    • 2-its polarity
    • 3-high boiling point
    • 4-low freezing point
    • 5-form gas
    • 6-solid
    • 7-cohesiveness (draw water to top of trees)
  26. Most vital chemical reactions occur only in a _______environment.
    water
  27. Hydrophilic are those molecules that _______in water.
    dissolve
  28. Hydrophobic are those molecules that _________in water
    do not dissolve
  29. Write 1 example of a colloid that is used in microbiology
    Agar
  30. When a substance dissociates in water and forms additional hydrogen ions it forms an
    acid
  31. When a substance dissociates in water and forms additional hydroxyl ions, the solution becomes a
    base
  32. Salts are compounds that dissociate in water but do not add
    hydrogen or hydroxide
  33. A pH of 5 is considered _______
    acidic
  34. a pH of 9 is considered
    a base
  35. a pH of 7 is
    neutral
  36. Buffers help to maintain a stable
    pH
  37. The best definition of an organic molecule is one that contains carbon (carbon dioxide is an exeption). All other molecules are called
    inorganic
  38. Carbon atoms form______covalent bonds with other atoms
    4
  39. By dehydration synthesis water is ______and a chemical bond is formed
    removed
  40. The addition of water to break a polymer into pnomers is called
    hydrolysis
  41. List the 4 main classes of organic macromolecules:
    carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
  42. The most abundant macromolecules in cells are _____
    proteins
  43. Denaturation changes the _____(structure) of the protein destroying its biological activity.
    shape
  44. list 3 examples that would cause denaturation
    temp, pH, osmotic strength
  45. List 2 tpes of nucleic acid
    DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid)
  46. DNA encodes a cell's _______info
    genetic
  47. RNA is critical in builiding
    proteins
  48. Monosaccarides are
    simple sugars
  49. Disaccaharides consist of _____monosaccharides
    2
  50. Cellulose occurs mainly in _______of plants and algae.
    cell walls
  51. Lipids are nonpolar molecules that are insoluble in ____but soluble in nonpalar solvents such as gasoline or kerosene.
    water
  52. Phospholipids have a glycerol backbone with ______fatty acids.
    2
  53. Fatty acid tails are _____and insoluble in water
    hydrophobic
  54. the phosphate head is _____ and soluble in water
    hydrophillic
  55. Phospholipids are an essetial component of membranes in plants, animals, and
    microorganisms

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