Card Set Information
List the 3 subatomic particles of an atom
proton, neutron, electron
Protons have a_______ charge and are located in the ________of an atom.
Neutrons carry no charge and are located in the _____ of an atom.
Electrons carry a _____ charge and are located ________ of the nucleus.
The number of electrons usually equals the number of
The first inner shell can contain _____to _____ electrons
1 to 2
The second shell can contain up to _____ electrons
The third shell can contain up to _____electrons.
Valence electrons are the number of ______ in an atom's outermost shell
the atomic number is the number of_______ an atom contains.
The atomic weight or mass is the number of ________an atom contains.
protons & neutrons
Isotopes contain the same number of protons, but different number of
If a atom has an atomic number of 12 and an atomic weight of 25, then the neutron number would be______
List several ways isotopes are important in medicine:
1- used to label and trace biological structures
2-radioactive tracers can be used to determine imagery such as DNA in bacteria, body structures, or cancer cells.
List the 4 most abundant elements in living organisms:
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
2 or more atoms joined together create a
Covalent Bonds form when 2 atoms ______a pair of electrons.
Ionic bonds occur by either ________or _______an electron (ions). Ionic bonds are held together by _____charges.
gaining or loosing, opposite
What type of bond does Sodium have?
Which of the following would be an incorrect association?
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
Hydrogen bonds are ______but important to living things.
List 3 factors which determines a reaction rate:
1-amt of reactants
3-presence of a catalyst
Catalysts ___the rate of a chemical reaction by ____the amt of energy needed for a reaction. Ex: Enzymes.
Water is essential for ___and forms about ____of the weight of microorganisms.
List 7 reasons why water is important:
1- capacity to form ydrogen bonds with other molecules.
3-high boiling point
4-low freezing point
7-cohesiveness (draw water to top of trees)
Most vital chemical reactions occur only in a _______environment.
Hydrophilic are those molecules that _______in water.
Hydrophobic are those molecules that _________in water
do not dissolve
Write 1 example of a colloid that is used in microbiology
When a substance dissociates in water and forms additional hydrogen ions it forms an
When a substance dissociates in water and forms additional hydroxyl ions, the solution becomes a
Salts are compounds that dissociate in water but do not add
hydrogen or hydroxide
A pH of 5 is considered _______
a pH of 9 is considered
a pH of 7 is
Buffers help to maintain a stable
The best definition of an organic molecule is one that contains carbon (carbon dioxide is an exeption). All other molecules are called
Carbon atoms form______covalent bonds with other atoms
By dehydration synthesis water is ______and a chemical bond is formed
The addition of water to break a polymer into pnomers is called
List the 4 main classes of organic macromolecules:
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
The most abundant macromolecules in cells are _____
Denaturation changes the _____(structure) of the protein destroying its biological activity.
list 3 examples that would cause denaturation
temp, pH, osmotic strength
List 2 tpes of nucleic acid
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid)
DNA encodes a cell's _______info
RNA is critical in builiding
Disaccaharides consist of _____monosaccharides
Cellulose occurs mainly in _______of plants and algae.
Lipids are nonpolar molecules that are insoluble in ____but soluble in nonpalar solvents such as gasoline or kerosene.
Phospholipids have a glycerol backbone with ______fatty acids.
Fatty acid tails are _____and insoluble in water
the phosphate head is _____ and soluble in water
Phospholipids are an essetial component of membranes in plants, animals, and