Ch 6 Vocab

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Ch 6 Vocab
2013-08-08 00:03:18

Ch 6 Vocab.txt
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  1. Ad hoc query
    Created due to unplanned information needs that is typically not saved for later use.
  2. Artificial intelligence
    The science of enabling information technologies to simulate human intelligence as well as gaining sensing capabilities.
  3. Association discovery
    A data mining technique used to find associations or correlations among sets of items.
  4. Attribute
    Individual piece of information about an entity in a database.
  5. Best Practices
    Procedures and processes used by business organizations that are widely accepted as being among the most effective and/or efficient.
  6. Bot
    "Short for ""software robot""; a program that works in the back ground to provide some service when a specific event occurs."
  7. Business analytics
    Applications that augment business intelligence by using predictive analysis to help identify trends or predict business outcomes.
  8. Business intelligence
    "The use of information systems to gather and analyze information from both external and internal sources to make better decisions, and the data derived from these processes."
  9. Business rules
    Policies by which a business runs.
  10. Buyer agent
    "Intelligent agent used to find the best price for a particular product a consumer wishes to purchase. Also known as a ""shopping bot""."
  11. Classification
    A data mining technique grouping instances into predefined categories.
  12. Clickstream data
    A recording of the users' path through a web site.
  13. Clustering
    Data mining technique grouping related records on the basis of having similar attributes.
  14. Competitive intelligence
    "Information about competitors, used to enhance a business's strategic position."
  15. Continuous planning process
    A strategic business planning process involving continuous monitoring and adjusting of business processes to enable rapid reaction to changing business conditions.
  16. Data cleansing
    The process of standardizing the form of data retrieved from different systems and removing inaccurate records.
  17. Data dictionary
    A document prepared by database designers to describe the characteristics of all items in a database.
  18. Data mart
    A data warehouse that is limited in scope and customized for the decision support applications of a particular end-user group.
  19. Data mining
    "A method used by companies to discover ""hidden"" predictive relationships in data to better understand their customers, products, markets, or any other phase of their business for which data has been captured."
  20. Data mining agent
    "An intelligent agent that continuously analyzes large data warehouses to detect changes deemed important by a user, sending a notification when such changes occur."
  21. Data model
    A map or diagram that represents the entities of a database and their relationships.
  22. Data reduction
    "A preparatory step to running data mining algorithms, performed by rolling up a data cube to the smallest level of aggregation needed, reducing the dimensionality, or dividing continuous measures into discrete intervals."
  23. Data type
    "The type (e.g., text, number, or date) of an attribute in a database."
  24. Data warehouse
    "An integration of multiple, large databases and other information sources into a single repository or access point that is suitable for direct querying, analysis, or processing."
  25. Database
    A collection of related data organized in a way to facilitate data searches.
  26. Decision support system (DSS)
    A special-purpose information system designed to support organizational decision making.
  27. Destructive agent
    Malicious agent designed by spammers and other internet attackers to farm e-mail addresses off web sites or deposit spyware on machines.
  28. Digital dashboard
    "A display delivering summary information to managers and executives to provide warnings, action notices, and summaries of business conditions."
  29. Dimension
    "A way to summarize data , such as region, time or product line."
  30. Drill down
    To analyze data at more detailed levels of a specific dimension.
  31. Drill-down report
    Report that provides details behind the summary values on a key-indicator or exception report.
  32. Entity
    "Something data is collected about, such as people or classes."
  33. Entity-relationship diagram (ERD)
    A diagram used to display the structure of data and show associations between entities.
  34. Exception report
    Report providing users with information about situations that are out of the normal operating range.
  35. Expert system (ES)
    A special-purpose information system designed to mimic human expertise by manipulating knowledge-understanding acquired through experience and extensive learning-rather than simply information.
  36. Explicit knowledge asset
    "Knowledge asset that can be documented, archived and codified."
  37. "Extraction, transformation, and loading"
    "The process of consolidating, cleansing, and manipulating data before loading it into a data warehouse."
  38. Fact
    The values and numbers a user wants to analyze (aka measure)
  39. Form
    "A business document that contains some predefined data and may include some areas where additional data is to be filled in, typically for a single period."
  40. Fuzzy logic
    Type of logic used in intelligent systems that allows rules to be represented using approximations or subjective values in order to handle situations where information about a problem is incomplete.
  41. Geographic information system (GIS)
    "A system for creating storing, analyzing, and managing geographically referenced information."
  42. Hard data
    Facts and numbers that are typically generated by transaction processing systems and management information systems.
  43. Inferencing
    The matching of user questions and answers to information in a knowledge base within an expert system in order to make a recommendations
  44. Informational system
    System designed to support decision making based on stable point-in-time or historical data.
  45. Intelligent agent
    A program that works in the background to provide some service when a specific event occurs.
  46. Intelligent system
    "System comprised of sensors software, and computers embedded in machines and devices that emulate and enhance human capabilities."
  47. Key-indicator report
    Report that provides a summary of critical information on a recurring schedule.
  48. Knowledge assets
    "The set of skills routines, practices, principles, formulas, methods, heuristics, and intuitions (both explicit and tacit) used by organizations to improve efficiency, effectiveness and profitability."
  49. Knowledge management
    The processes an organization uses to gain the greatest value from its knowledge assets.
  50. Knowledge management system
    "A collection of technology-based tools that include communications technologies and information storage and retrieval systems to enable the generation, storage, sharing, and management of tacit knowledge assets."
  51. Knowledge portal
    "Specific portal used to share knowledge collected into a repository with employees (often using an intranet), with customers and suppliers (often using and extranet), or the general public (often using the internet.)"
  52. Layer
    "In a GIS, related data can be made visible or invisible when viewing a map; each layer acts like a transparency that can be turned on or off and provides additional information such as roads, utilities, ZIP code boundaries flood-plains and so on."
  53. Master data
    The data that is deemed most important in the operation of a business.
  54. Master data management
    Consolidating master data so as to facilitate arriving at a single version of the truth.
  55. Measure
    The values and numbers a user wants to analyze.
  56. Model
    "Conceptual, mathematical, logical, and analytical formula used to represent or project business events or trends."
  57. Monitoring and sensing agent
    "Intelligent agent that keeps track of key information, notifying the user when conditions change. "
  58. Neural network
    An information system that attempts to approximate the functioning of a human brain.
  59. normalization
    A technique for making complex databases more efficient and more easily handled by a database management system.
  60. OLAP cube
    A data structure allowing for multiple dimensions to be added to a traditional two-dimensional table for detailed analysis.
  61. OLAP server
    The chief component of an OLAP system that understands how data is organized in the database and has special functions for analyzing the data.
  62. Online analytical processing (OLAP)
    The process of quickly conducting complex analyses of data stored in a database typically using graphical software tools.
  63. Online transaction processing (OLTP)
    Immediate automated responses to the requests from multiple concurrent transactions from customers.
  64. Operational systems
    The systems that are used to interact with customers and run a business in real time.
  65. Predictive analysis
    Business analysis techniques focusing on identifying trends or predicting business outcomes.
  66. Query
    Method used to retrieve information from a database
  67. Query by example (QBE)
    A capability of a DBMS that enables data to be requested by providing a sample or a description of the types of data the user would like to see.
  68. Record
    A collection of related attributes about a single entity
  69. Report
    A compilation of data from a database that is organized and produced in printed format.
  70. Report generator
    Software tool that helps users build reports quickly and describe the data in a useful format.
  71. Roll up
    To analyze data at less detailed levels of a certain dimension
  72. Rule
    "A way of encoding knowledge, typically expressed using an ""if-then"" format, within an expert system."
  73. Scheduled report
    "Report produced at predefined intervals-daily, weekly, or monthly- to support the routine informational needs of managerial-level decision making."
  74. sequence discovery
    Data mining technique used to discover associations over time.
  75. Shopping bot
    "Intelligent agent used to find the best price for a particular product a consumer wishes to purchase. Also known as a ""shopping bot""."
  76. Slicing and dicing
    Analyzing data on subsets of certain dimensions.
  77. Social network analysis
    "A technique that attempts to find groups of people who work together, to find people who don't collaborate but should, or to find experts in particular subject areas."
  78. Soft data
    Textual news stories or other nonanalytical information.
  79. Stickiness
    A websites ability to attract and keep visitors
  80. Structured Query Language (SQL)
    The most common language used to interface with databases.
  81. Table
    A collection of related records in a database where each row is a record and each column is an attribute.
  82. Tacit Knowledge asset
    Knowledge assets that reflect the processes and procedures located in employee's minds.
  83. Text mining
    Analytical techniques for extracting information from textual documents.
  84. User agent
    "Intelligent agent that automatically performs specific tasks for a user, such as automatically sending a report at the first of the month, assembling customized views, or filling out a web form with routine information."
  85. Visual analytics
    The combination of various analysis techniques and interactive visualizations to solve complex problems.
  86. Visualization
    The display of complex data relationships using a variety of graphical methods.
  87. Web content mining
    Extracting textual information from web documents.
  88. Web crawler
    "Intelligent agent that continuously browses the Web for specific information (e.g., used by search engines). Also known as ""Web Spider""."
  89. Web spider
    "Intelligent agent that continuously browses the Web for specific information (e.g., used by search engines). Also known as ""crawler""."
  90. Web usage mining
    "Analysis of a Web site's usage patterns, such as navigational paths or time spent."
  91. What-if analysis
    An analysis of the effects of hypothetical changes to data have on the results.