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2013-08-08 05:24:25

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  1. -Dated at approximately 6 mya
    -Whether this species is a hominin remains unclear
    -Has thick molar enamel
    -Canine fossil appears to be relatively large and ape-like
    -Angle of femoral neck indicate it was at least frequently bipedal
    -Fossil's name means "original man"
    Orrorin tugenesis
  2. -Found in N. central Africa and dated between 6 and 7 mya
    -Canines are relatively small, enamel on molars are thick
    -Very prominent supraorbital torus
    -Lack of a shearing complex
    -Small "ape-like" braincase
    -Hominine but not undoubtedly hominin
    Sahelanthropus tchadensis
  3. -Found in eastern Africa and dated at 4.4 mya
    -Many of fossils are embedded in limestone and hard to extract
    -Fossil's name means "ground ape at the root"
    -Lived in a woodland or forested environment
    -Primitive traits such as flat cranial base and thin molar enamel
    -Derived traits such as reduced canines, little canine dimorphism between the sexes and relatively reduced facial prognathism
    -Given the overall morphology, it is likely this species moved bipedally on the ground but was adept at moving in trees as well
    Ardipithecus ramidus
  4. -Found in eastern Africa and dated between 4.5 and 3.9 mya
    -Species was bipedal
    -Molars are large and have thick enamel
    -Primitive characteristics include a slight canine/premolar shearing complex and a sectorial premolar
    -Large range in body size in this species and may have been sexual and canine dimorphism, males being larger than females
    Australopithecus anamensis
  5. -Found in east Africa and dates between 3.9 and 3.0 mya
    -Primitive traits include large canines, semisectorial premolar, parallel tooth rows, site of the base on the cranium and a relatively prognathic face
    -Large and thick molars
    -Size of cranium is small, with a brain about 420 cc
    -Highly modified pelvic girdle as well as femur, tibia and feet that indicate frequent if not constant bipedal locomotion
    -Long arms and curved phalanges associated with arboreal movement
    -Lived in savannah and woodland environment
    -Extreme sexual dimorphism
    Australopithecus afarensis
  6. -Found in east Africa and dated around 3.5 mya
    -Small size of teeth and flatness of the face sets this species apart from others of its time
    -Thick molar enamel
    -Needs more postcranial information to determine whether or not it was bipedal
    Kenyathropus platyops
  7. -Found in south Africa and dated between 3.0 and 2.4 mya
    -First reported about with the famous "Taung child"
    -Gracile hominin
    -Exhibited sexual dimorphism similar or slightly greater to members of genus Paranthropus
    -Cranial capacity ranged from 400-500 cc
    -Face is has low facial prognathism
    -Small incisors and canines and substantially smaller premolar and molar teeth
    -Arms are longer than legs
    -Big toe is slightly divergent, suggesting species may have moved around in trees
    -Vertebral column appears to have a curve similar to modern humans
    -Was probably bipedal but also capable of some arboreal locomotion
    Australopithecus africanus
  8. -Found in east Africa and dates to 2.5 mya
    -Name means "surprise"
    -Gracile hominin
    -Large premolars and molars with thick enamel, large canines, parallel tooth rows
    -Relatively prognathous face
    -Longer femur relative to humerus (characteristic of a human)
    -Dates of existence place it in a time and place when no other hominin fossils are found
    -Found in association with evidence of tool use and meat eating
    -Olduwan tools
    Australopithecus garhi
  9. -Found in Olduvai Gorge in east and south Africa dating from 2.0 to 1.6 mya
    -Name of species means "handy man"
    -Relatively prognathic face
    -No sagittal ridge
    -Large incisors and smaller postcanine teeth, narrow tooth row
    -Phalanges are slightly curved suggesting the ability to use a precision grip (important for tool making)
    -Pelvic girdle and legs display clear bipedal
    -Olduwan toolsadaptations
    -Fossil foot is a mix of primitive and derived traits and appears to retain some potential climbing adaptations
    -Brain size ranges from 503-661 cc
    -Terrestrial bipedality was the primary mode of locomotion
    -Diet of underground storage organs
    -Probably lived in social groups
    Homo hablis
  10. -Found in east Africa and dates between 2.4 and 1.6 mya
    -Brain size of 736 cc, by far the largest for any hominin before 1.8 mya
    -Face is broad and flat
    -No distinct supraorbital torus
    -Sagittal ridge is present
    -Postcanine teeth exhibit megadontia but premolars and molars are relatively smaller
    -Large body size
    -Olduwan tools
    -Diet of underground storage organs
    -Probably lived in social groups
    Homo rudolfensis
  11. -Found in east Africa and dates between 2.5 and 2.3 mya
    -Hyper robust fossil hominin
    -Fossil "black skull" is apart of this species and was the first of its kind to be found
    -Derived characteristics such as having a broad, dish shaped face, almost no forehead, widely flared zygomatic arches
    -Pronounced sagittal crest
    -Extreme facial prognathism
    -Very large molar teeth
    -Cranial capacity of 410 cc
    -Nothing is known post cranially of this species
    -Vegetation diet/Omnivorous
    Paranthropus aethiopicus
  12. -Found in east Africa in Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania by Mary Leakey
    -Dates between 2.3 and 1.3 mya
    -Appears to have been sexually dimorphic (but on the scale of modern humans)
    -Sagittal crest present
    -Flaring zygomatic arches
    -Broad, flat face that protruded very little at the jaw
    -Very large teeth; had the largest relative molar and premolar teeth to body size of any hominin
    -Very small incisors and canines that were highly incisorlike (characteristics of later hominins and humans)
    -Relatively parabolic tooth row
    -Estimated cranial capacity ranges between 410 and 530 cc
    -Lived in a mosiac grassland and woodland environment with numerous lakes
    -Vegetation diet/Omnivorous
    -Possible tool maker
    Paranthropus boisei
  13. -Found in south Africa dating between 2 and 1.5 mya
    -Sexual dimorphism is similar to that of later hominins
    -Flat face, small forehead
    -Small incisors and canines
    -Sagittal ridge present
    -Pronounced zygomatic arches
    -Cranial capacity of about 530 cc
    -Arms were longer than legs (primitive trait)
    -Possible tool maker
    -Vegetation diet/Omnivorous
    Paranthropus robustus
  14. -Found in Africa and Eurasia; dating between 1.8 and 0.3 mya (300,00 kya)
    -Had larger brains, larger bodies, less sexual dimorphism, shorter arms in relation to legs and longer legs in relation to body size
    -Diversification of material record left behind including tools and other extrasomatic material
    -Average cranial capacity of 883 cc
    -Postcranial anatomy similar to modern humans but had higher bone density and more robust skeleton
    -Phalanges appear to be long and straight and toes are shorter (characteristics of modern humans)
    -Cranium shape is long and low with robust projection at the front of the frontal bone, a supraorbital torus
    -Some fossils have a sagittal keel
    -Most fossils have an occipital torus and  a strong supraorbital torus
    -Broad, flat nasal bones
    -Large mandibles with no protruding chin with shovel shaped incisors
    -Mandibles are robust compared to modern humans and there is a receding chin
    -Gut sizes smaller than earlier hominins-
    -Controlled use of fire
    -Acheulean tools
    -Used caves as shelter
    -Cooperative social living; possible increase in infant caretaking responsibilities or more collaboration in hunting, scavenging or other food gathering activities
    Homo erectus
  15. -Series of fossils found in east Africa and South Africa dating from about 1.8 to 1.6 mya
    -"Turkana boy" belongs to this species - fossil suggests there may have been more sexual dimorphism in these earlier forms than in the later ones
    -Retention of primitive characterisitics such as a six lumbar vertebrae and a smaller canal for the passage of a spinal cord
    -Lack a sagittal keel
    -Have a less robust supraorbital torus and thinner cranial bones
    -Grooved, shovel shaped incisors
    Homo ergaster
  16. -Found on the eastern Indonesian island of Flores and dating between 95,000 and 12,000 years ago
    -Approximately 1 m tall with a brain around 380 cc
    -Debate over whether this is just a dwarfed version of another species
    Homo floresiensis
  17. -Found in Africa, Europe, Asia and dates between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago
    -Morphological changes that include slightly thinner cranial bones; reduced postorbital constriction; smaller and seperated supraorbital tori; larger and slightly higher cranial vault
    -Less prognathic face and reduced supraorbital torus
    - Increased size of the occipital relative to the nuchal plane at the back of the skull
    -Seemed to link H. erectus and H. Sapiens but are not easily placed in either one
    -Evidence of cooperative hunting and complex tool production
    Homo heidelbergensis
  18. -Found in Europe and the Middle East; dating between 300,000 and 27,000 years ago
    -Average cranial capacity greater than 1400 cc (larger than modern humans)
    -Had large midfaces and noses that projected forward
    -Large gap in third molar (retromolar gap)
    -Large protruding occipital bones and marked neck muscle attachments on the skull called a suprainic fossa
    -Incisor teeth were very large and there is a weak or receding chin
    -Within the range of modern human height and weight
    -Mophological characteristics are adaptations to cold weather and harsh climates; body type was the result of adaptation for high mobility and close-contact hunting of large game
    -Led harsh lives; fossils exhibit broken bones and substatial wear and tear
    -Strong evidence that this species and modern human species overlapped in time and maybe have a common ancestor about 700,000 or more years ago
    -Used Acheulean tools as well as more complex tools such as wood spears
    -Capable of organizing group hunts and running large game off cliffs
    -Could use and control fire
    -Shelters made of wood and hide were built
    -Levallois technique/ Mousterian industry
    -Animal matter in diet; also ate shellfish, fish and even dolphins
    -Lived and worked together in communities
    -Evidence of burials, "grave goods" and assistance for injured or aged individuals
    -Possibility of belief systems (defleshing from the skull after death)
    -Used terrestrial and marine resources
    Homo neandertalensis
  19. -Oldest fossil representatives come from Africa and the Middle East but species is global - dating from 95 kya to present
    -High, rounded cranium with the widest point on the sides of the parietals above the midpoint of the skull
    -Cranium has a tall, almost vertical frontal bone
    -Small to minimal supraorbital tori
    -Highly flexed cranial base (with a small angle)
    -Face is largely pulled in under the cranium, nearly flush with the frontal bone
    -Mean cranial capacity is 1350 cc
    -Teeth are smallest of any of the hominins relative to body size; distinct canine fossa
    -No retromolar gap; third molar is almost running out of room
    -Protruding chin; a unique feature of this species
    -Complexity in tools (blade tools), hunting and foraging behavior; helped to expand dietary patterns
    -Symbolic and individual expression; language
    -Social complexity, environmental modification and niche construction
    -Use of imagination; art, music, etc.
    Homo sapiens
  20. -Found in east Africa ; dates around 160,000 years ago
    -Name means "elder or first born"
    -Relating to the "recent African origin" model
    -Argued to represent the oldest direct ancestors of modern Homo sapiens
    Homo sapiens idaltu