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Three kinds of muscles
Tendons and Ligaments
- Tendons connect muscle to bone
- Ligaments connect bone to bone
- Cartilage is an extension of the bone end
Different types of motion
- Flexion: bending motion that moves the extremities to the body
- Extension: opposite of flexion
- Adduction: movement of a body part towards the midline of the body
- Abduction: opposite of adduction
- Circumduction: movement through an arc of a circle or in a circular motion from a central point
Types of Injuries
- Fracture: a broken bone, closed/open
- Strain: an injury to a muscle or a muscle and tendon
- Sprain: an injury to a joint capsule, with damage to or tearing of the connective tissue
- Dislocation: the displacement of the bone from its normal position in a joint
A broken bone resulting from a disease that causes bone degeneration.
A degenerative bone disorder associated with an accelerated loss of minerals, primarily Ca, from the bone
Mechanism if Injury(MOI)
- Direct Force: direct blow. Injuries from direct force occur at the point of impact.
- Indirect Force: A force that causes some injury some distance away from the point of impact
- Twisting Force: A force that twists a bone while one is held stationary
The sound or feel of broken fragments of bone against each other.
6 "Ps" when assessing extremity
- Pallor: skin condition
- Paresthesia: numbness or tingling sensation that indicates some loss of sensation
Any device used to immobilize a body part.
General Rules of Splinting
- Assess PMS before and after splinting.
- Immobilize the joints below and above the injury.
- Remove all clothing away from the injury site.
- Cover all wounds
- If one extremity that lacks pulse, one chance to align the extremity-if pain increases, stop
- Do not push anything back
Tissue in a confined space causing decreased blood flow, leading to hypoxia and possible muscle, nerve, and vessel impairment.