BCN1 ch 6

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BCN1 ch 6
2013-08-12 15:10:23

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  1. Perception
    process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
  2. Behaviors that we believe to be under control of the individual
    Internally Caused
  3. The Fundamental attribution error we tend to _____ the influence of external factors when analyzing behavior of others.
  4. internally caused behaviors
    believed to be under the personal control of the individual
  5. externally caused behaviors
    we believe the situation forced the individual to behave that way
  6. Attribution Therory
    ways we judge people differently, dependent on meaning we attribute to given behavior. See individual - try to figure out if behavior is due to internal or external causes
  7. 3 factors of Attribuation Theory
    • 1. Distinctiveness
    • 2. Consensus 
    • 3. Consistency
  8. distinctiveness
    if individual displays different behaviors in different situations. if behavior is unusual - probably external. if not - probably internal
  9. consensus
    everyone who faced same situation responded in the same way
  10. consistency
    the more often the behavior happens - the more likely it is internal
  11. fundamental attribution error
    tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others
  12. self-servving bias
    tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and put the blame for failures on external factors
  13. selective perception
    tendency to selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one's interests, background, experience, & attitudes
  14. A situation in which behavior is determine by others expectations?
    self-fulfilling prophecy
  15. self-fulfilling prophecy
    situation in which a person inaccurately perceives a second person, and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception
  16. halo effect
    tendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
  17. Contract
    evaluation of a person's characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
  18. Stereotyping
    judging someone based on the perception of the group to which they belong
  19. decisions
    choices made from among two or more alternatives
  20. Problem
    discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state
  21. Most Decisions follow the ___ model of decision making
    Bounded Rationality
  22. bounded rationality
    process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity
  23. rational
    characterized by making consistent, value maximizing choices within specified constraints
  24. rational decision-making model
    a decision making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome
  25. Steps in the Rational Decision Making Model
    • 1. Define the Problem
    • 2. Identify The decision Criteria 
    • 3. Allocate Weights To The Criteria 
    • 4. Develop the alternatives
    • 5. Evaluate The Alternatives
    • 6. Select The best Alternative
  26. intuitive decision making
    unconscious process created out of distilled experience
  27. We tend to ______ our own abilities
  28. We tend to seek out info that reaffirms our past choices and we discount info that contradicts our past judgements
    confirmation bias
  29. confirmation bias
    tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgments
  30. anchoring bias
    tendency to fixate on initial information, from which one then fails to adequately adjust for subsequent information
  31. availability bias
    tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them
  32. Steps to reducing  biases and error
    • 1. Focus On Goals
    • 2. Look For Information That Disconfirms Your      Believes 
    • 3. Don't try to create meaning out of random events
    • 4. Increase your options
  33. escalation of commitment
    increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information
  34. randomness error
    tendency of individuals to believe that they can predict the outcome of random events
  35. We tend to believe falsely that we have accurately predicted the outcome of an event. after the outcome is already known
    hindsight bias
  36. The gender which analyzes decisions more?
  37. rumination
    reflecting at length - overthinking problems
  38. risk aversion
    The tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over a riskier outcome, even if the riskier outcome may have a higher expected payoff
  39. The ethical criterion which argues that decisions should be made solely on the bias of their outcomes or consequences. The greatest good for the greatest number
  40. whistle-blowers
    individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders
  41. three criteria for ethical decision making
    • 1.utilitarianism
    • 2. making decisions based on rights of individuals
    • 3. making decisions based on justice/equality
  42. creativity
    ability to produce novel & useful ideas
  43. three-component model of creativity
    The proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation.
  44. the foundation of all creative work
  45. The second component of creativity
    Creative Skills