The actions of a single organism. How it survives, reproduces, its structure, physiology and behavior with regard to the environment.
What does the population approach cover?
It looks at the factors that affects the populations living in a given area. It deals with population dynamics (how they fluctuate spatially and temporally) and demography.
What is a population?
A group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area
What does the community approach cover?
It looks at the WHOLE array of species that interact in a given community. It examines the interactions among populations, species diversity, trophic dynamics, competition, predation, and succession.
What is a community?
Consists of all the organisms of all the species that inhabit a particular are
what is the ecosystem approach?
It looks at energy flow and chemical cycling among biotic and abiotic components. An example of this is primary productivity growth (overall level of plant growth).
What is the biosphere approach?
This is also known as GLOBAL ecology. It looks at the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems. It covers the topic of global warming.
In the human gut, how does the microbial species vary from person to person?
In regards to gut bacteria, how may some health disorders be treatable?
By manipulating the gut bacterial community
How does variation in physical environments happen?
From atmosphere and ocean circulation patterns and geological processes.
What Is climate?
Average conditions and patterns of variation over longer periods
What is weather?
The state of atmospheric conditions in a particular place at a particular time.
How do organisms adapt and prepare for the prevailing weather?
They adapt to CLIMATE so they are prepared for WEATHER.
What is the earth's only true source of energy?
How are higher latitudes affected seasonally?
They experience greater fluctuation over the course of a year
What region is the tropics?
The area between 23.5degrees N and 23.5degrees S latitude.
What causes winds and ocean currents?
The natural tendency of heat to spread out into areas of lower heat
What causes precipitation and air patterns?
The rise and fall of air due to changes in air density
What is the process by which air cools and expands?
Where does cooling air sink? And where are there most deserts?
Around 30 degrees N and S
What are Hadley cells?
Cells that circulate between 0 and 30 degrees
What are Ferell cells?
Cells that circulate between 30 and 60 degrees
What are polar cells?
Cells that circulate between 60 and 90 degrees
How are prevailing winds deflected by the rotation of the earth? What is the process called?
The Coriolis effect
What is the Coriolis effect?
It causes predictable directional flow of winds and oceans due to the rotation of the earth; for every rotation, points on the equator move a greater distance than points at the poles,
How do points on the poles and equator spin? How do they differ?
Polar points spin at a much lower velocity than equator points since they move a relatively small distance
In what direction do trade winds travel?
They move toward the equator near the tropics to the left
In what direction do easterlies travel?
These are at higher latitudes and they are deflected to the left
In what direction to westerlies travel?
They are winds moving away from the equator in mid latitudes that reflect to the right.
What are two kinds of ocean currents?
Shallow currents and deep ocean currents
What are shallow currents?
Found at the surface; driven by prevailing winds and Coriolis effect, they redistribute heat away from equator. First 100 meters;
How are deep ocean currents driven?
By water density differences
What is the water like in deep currents?
Saltier, colder, and more sense, so it sinks; water near Antarctica and greenland is colder and saltier, this 'conveyor belt' helps balance climate.
How is climate moderated?
Oceans and large lakes, because of their high heat capacity.
How does water affect temperatures?
The currents carry heat or cold in the conveyor belt thus warming or cooling areas it is taking water TO
What are some of the major forces that modify the ideal model of global climate
Water vs land; mountain ranges, and oceans
What is the water vs. land debate and how does it affect climate?
Water heats much more slowly than land this causes wind currents that contribute to land-sea breezes and monsoons
How do mountain ranges affect climate?
They can deflect trade winds and produce rain
How do oceans affect climate?
The temperatures do not fluctuate as much as landmass temperatures so areas near bodies of water (like Florida) tend to be more moderate.
In a climate diagram, when does the growing season occur?
When temperatures areabove freezing and there is enough precipitation
What is topography?
The study of earth's surface shape and features
How does topography influence climate?
As you go up a mountain, air temperature drops about 1 percent C for each 220 m of elevetation
What is the process that occurs to produce a rain shadow?
Winds bump into a mountain, air rises, cools, releases moisture, and now the dry air descends on the leeward side (other side)
How does topography influence aquatic environments?
The slope of underwater mountains affects the velocity and direction of water flow. The depth can also affect pressure, temp, light penetration and movement of water (all abiotic factors); these factors influence the organisms that live ther
Where are the only environments species can life?
In environments they can tolorate; they MUST be adapted to their physical environments
What is a biome?
A distinct physical environment inhabited by ecologically similar organisms with similar adaptations.
What are early naturalists?
Explorers that began to understand how the earth's physical environments shapes the distribution of organisms
What did the observations of early naturalists reveal?
A convergence of characteristics of vegetation found in similar climates around the world.
What can occur between species in the same biome at geographically separate regions?
They can display convergent evolution of morphological, physiological, or behavioral traits.
How are terrestrial biomes distinguished?
Annual patterns of temperature and precipitations and distinguished by vegetation.
What is another factor influence vegetation?
How are aquatic biomes determined?
Water depth, current, temperature, pressure, salinity, substrate characteristics.
What kind of climate occurs in the tropical rain forest?
High precipitation and temperatures
What kind of climate occurs in the tundra?
Low precipitation and low temperature
What kind of climate occurs in the subtropical deserts?
Low precipitation and high temperatures
What kind of climate occurs in temperate grassland/deserts?
Low precipitation and low to medium temperatures. Snow in winter and drought is likely in summer.
What kind of climate occurs in the tropical seasonal forests/savannas?
Intermediate level of precipitation and high average temperatures
What was the story with Russel Wallace?
He studied different bird species and saw how different they were even though they had different soil and climate. Suggested that the two islands developed independently, and the species underwent reproductive isolation.
What are biogeographic regions barriers?
Areas that are separated by geographic barriers that impede movement of organisms. Mountains, large bodies of water, and extreme climates thought to have created by continental drift
What do wallace's biogeographic regions contain?
Distinct assemblages of species, many of which are phylogenetically related
When did biotas of the 7 biogeographic regions develop in isolation?
Tertiary period (65 to 1.8 mya); during extensive radiations of flowering plants and vertebrates
What happens in biotic interchange?
Landmasses collide and are able to exchange organisms, continental movement.
How do biogeographers study modern distributions of species?
They use phylogenetic information along with fossil records and geological history
What kinds of activities are altering ecological systems?
Human activities, they are changing systems on a GLOBAL scale
What is the name of the geological period we are said to be entering?
What kinds of distributions are humans changing?
Organisms, vegetation, topography, and climate
How much of earth's land area is covered by human dominated ecosystems? What are they?
1/2. croplands, pasturelands, urban settlements; they have fewer interacting species and are less complex.
What is human assisted biotic interchange?
It is the process by which humans inadvertently bring species with them as they move throughout the globe.
How are agricultural lands affected by humans?
Species-rich areas are replaced by monocultures of single crops, the diversity is very low. 19% of crops make up 95% of total food production globally
How do human activities reduce complexity in natural ecosystems?
Rivers, pollution, overexploitation of wild species, introductions of new species
What does natural history provide?
Important knowledge about ecosystems; they serve as a source of new questions and hypothesis and aid in design of new eco experiments.
Why did the rangeland restoration method that worked in Europe fail to work in Borderlands?