Lecture 2.txt

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Lecture 2.txt
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lecture 2
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  1. What are the 4 questions in studying animal behavior?
    Causation, Development, Function, and Evolution
  2. What does the causation ask?
    WHAT is the immediate stimulus for behavior?
  3. What does development ask?
    HOW does behavior change with age and elarning?
  4. What does function ask?
    How does the behavior affect chances for survival and reproduction?
  5. What does evolution ask?
    HOW does the behavior compare with similar behaviors in RELATED SPECIES, and how might it have evolved?
  6. Which cause do causation and development refer to?
    Proximate
  7. Which causes do function and evolution refer to?
    Ultimate causes
  8. What are the two classical schools of behavior that focus on proximate causes?
    Behaviorism and Ethology
  9. What is behaviorism?
    It is derived from pavlov's work on conditioning; where neural reflexes could be modified by experience to respond to an unnatural stimulus
  10. What is ethology
    The study of instinctive behaviors. Genetically determined fixed action patterns
  11. What is a releaser and how does it relate to ethology?
    A simple sign stimulus that initiates an innate behavior a TRIGGER.
  12. What are the two schools that argue nature and nurture?
    Ethology and behavioral
  13. What do behavioral ecologists study?
    They study WHY and HOW certain behaviors evolved
  14. How can behaviors evolve?
    Environmental conditions can put selective pressure to maintain homeostasis, choice of mate, territory, nest location, or food source
  15. How to some behaviors result?
    They result from both inheritance and learning
  16. How can hormones control behavior?
    They change brain structure and function
  17. If two rhythms are in complete match, what are they call?
    In phase
  18. What is a circadian rhythm
    Daily cycles of activities
  19. What type of rhythms coordinate behavior with environmental cycles?
    Biological rhythms
  20. What is the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)
    In mammals, the master circadian clock consists of two clusters of neurons known as the SCN
  21. What happens when the SCN is destroyed in animals?
    It becomes arrhythmic. This can be transplanted and the recipient will have rhythms of the donor tissue
  22. What is piloting?
    It involves knowing and remembering the structure of the environment. It means that animals must be able to find their way in their environment.
  23. What is homing?
    The ability to return to a specific location from a long distance
  24. What two systems of navigation do humans use?
    Distance-direction navigation and Bicoordinate navigation (true navigation)
  25. What is distance-direction coordination? It requires knowing in what direction and what distance the destination is
  26. What kind of senses do animals seem to have that help them navigate?
    They have a compass sense and a map sense that help them use environmental cues to determine their direction and position.
  27. How do pigeons orient themselves?
    Time compensated solar compass
  28. What is bicoordinate navigation (true navigation)?
    Requires knowing longitude and latitude of the current position and destination.
  29. What are three kinds of experiments that prove there is a genetic component to behavior?
    Breeding experiments, mutation experiments, and gene knockout experiments.
  30. What is learning?
    The modification of behavior based on experience
  31. What is a learned behavior
    Those that evolve throgh experience in the environment.
  32. What are some categories of learned behavior?
    Imprinting, Habituation
  33. What is imprinting?
    When an animal learns a set of stimuli during a critical period; a time-dependent learning process
  34. What is a critical period in imprinting?
    A window of time when imprinting can occur;
  35. What is habituation?
    A simple type of learning that involves a loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no benefit or information.
  36. What is a period in regards to an individual's circadian rhythm?
    The length of the cycle, usually 24 hourss
  37. What is a phase in terms of circadian rhythm?
    Any designated point in the cycle.
  38. What is a true bicoordinate navigation system?
    It requires knowing the exact latitude and longitude of both the current position and the destination.
  39. How do animals feel about defending resources?
    they will not defend a resource that cannot be economically defended.
  40. What is an anusual form of male territorial behavior?
    A Lek. They compete for prime sites in the center of the group where females come to mate.
  41. What is a lek?
    a communal area to display prowess and empress females.
  42. What are mating systems useful for?
    Maximizing fitness of both partners.
  43. What goes on in polygynous mating systems?
    A male has more than one mate. Fitness is increased by having more females
  44. What is polyandry?
    A mating system where one female mates with many males, it is seen where increased paternal care improves fitness
  45. What do phermones signal?
    Alarm signals, mating, mark a trail, or mark a territory
  46. What is are altruistic acts? Kin selection.
    Behaviors that reduce the performer's fitness but increase that of the one being helped. Behaviors that benefit another individual at one's own expense.
  47. What contributes to an individual's fitness?
    An animal's offspring
  48. What is inclusive fitness? What does it entail?
    Individual reproductive success plus that derived from relative's success. Personal fitness + Kin fitness
  49. What is hamilton's rule? What is the formula?
    A formula to determine whether or not an alturistic behavior is adaptive. Benefit to recipient X degree of relatedness has to be greater than the cost to the performer. B x r > C
  50. What is a eusocial society?
    One where the individuals give up mating to support reproduction of the group. 'queen bee'
  51. What is a haplodiploidy?
    One in which diploid individuals are female and haploids are males. Only the queen is fertile and she produces all the offspring in a colony.
  52. What are the coefficients of relatedness for haploid systems?
    Female/female- 75%; female-male- 25%; Queen/offspring - 50%
  53. Why may eusociality be favored?
    If it is difficult or dangerous to start a new colony
  54. Which are the most eusocial mammals?
    The naked mole rats.
  55. What are some benefits of group living?
    Foraging efficiency, reduce risk of becoming prey, alarm calling to reduce predation risk.
  56. What are some negative results of group living?
    It may interfere with one another's ability to get food or reproduce. Increase risk from diseases and parasites.

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