Pathophysiology Exam 4

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  1. Hormones
    chemical messengers that regulate body functions
  2. What is the most common control mechanism for regulation?
    negative feedback
  3. Up-regulation
    the cell makes more hormone receptors
  4. Down-regulation
    the cell makes less hormone receptors
  5. Hormone classifications
    • based on structure
    • peptides
    • amines
    • steroids
  6. Amino acids (amines)
    • derived from Tyrisine
    • secreted from thyroid and adrenal medulla
    • stored as granules in the cytoplasm
  7. Proteins (peptides)
    • majority of hormones
    • water soluable
    • excreted from pituitary, parathyroid, heart, stomach, liver, kidneys
  8. how are peptides stored?
    as secretory granules until they are released into the blood
  9. Cholesterol (steroids)
    • derived from cholesterol
    • secreted by gonads, adrenal cortex and placenta
    • once synthesized, passed directly into the bloodstream, they are not stored
  10. How hormones are elinated
    • can be eliminated intact or inactivated
    • can be taken up then destroyed
    • can be destroyed in the liver and passed out in the bile
  11. What does the hypothalamus regulate?
    temperature, hunger, mood, release of hormones, sex drive, sleep, thirst
  12. How to detect where hormone disorders are coming from
    • tertiary - from the hypothalamus
    • secondary - from the pituitary
    • primary - from the gland
  13. How growth hormone is released
    • released by anterior pituitary
    • reacts to hypothalamus releasing growth hormone releasing hormone
  14. Growth hormones causes what?
    an increase in size and number in cells
  15. Growth hormone is stimulated by
    hypoglycemia, fasting, starvation, stress
  16. Growth hormone is inhibited by
    Increased glucose levels, free fatty acid release, obesity, and cortisol
  17. Functions of growth hormone
    ⇧ bone length and thickness by depositing cartilage to the end of the bones
  18. sex hormones released in adolescence
    causes bones to stop growing by replacing cartilage with calcium and phospahate
  19. IGF 1
    stimulates protein synthesis and makes the body retain carbohydrates, blood glucose will rise
  20. IGF 1
    ⇩ adipose tissue, decreases glucose uptake in cells
  21. growth hormone causes
    more protein uptake and synthesis, less glucose uptake, and an increase in fat breakdown
  22. Growth hormone deficiency
    • idiopathic - lacks hypothalamic GHRH
    • pituitary tumors/agenesis - can't produce GH
    • Laron-type dwarfism - hereditary defect in IGF production
  23. four common dwarfism
    • Achondroplasia
    • Turner Syndrome
    • Pituitary
    • Lack of nurture
  24. Achondroplasia
    • longs bones do not develop
    • fibula become overly long
    • head disproportionately large
  25. Achondroplasia
    • can occur by itself with no prior family history
    • risk increases with father's age
    • can be an autosomal dominant trait
    • most are spontaneous
  26. Turner's Syndrome
    • Chromosomal abnormality, occurs only in females
    • one X chromosome is either missing or defective
  27. Dwarfism
    • GH deficiency
    • body is in proportion
    • can be treated with GH therapy
  28. Lack of Nurture
    Failure to thrive
Card Set:
Pathophysiology Exam 4
2013-08-10 14:22:24

test 4
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