Nursing research

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Nursing research
2013-08-11 14:20:09
nursing research

this class is worthless
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  1. Results
    section that includes statistics of the sample and answers to the research question
  2. Research Utilization
    Applying research findings from individual studies to practice
  3. Abstract
    provides and overview of the study
  4. Nuremberg Code
    Basis for ethical conduct in research internationally
  5. Evidence Based Practice
    Use of theory-derived, research-based information in making decisions about healthcare delivery, with consideration of individual needs and preferences and the the clinical expertise of the provider
  6. Methods Section
    Includes a discussion of the study design, the sample and the data collection procedures
  7. Purpose statement
    the aim of the study
  8. External validity
    the extent to which the study can be generalized
  9. Longitudinal design
    design used to gather data about subjects at more than one point in time
  10. Cross sectional
    Nonexperimental designs used to gather data from a group of subjects at only one point in time
  11. Proposition
    A statement about the relationship between two or more concepts
  12. Theory
    A set of concepts linked through propositions to provide an explanation of a phenomenon
  13. Construct
    A word or phrase used to communicate a specific key idea to others
  14. Manipulation
    The ability of researchers to control the independent variable
  15. Grounded Theory
    used when the goal is to discover a process
  16. Purposive sampling
    Used to recruit specific persons who could provide inside information
  17. Snowball sampling
    recruitment based on word of mouth
  18. Phenomenology
    research method used to study participant's lived experience
  19. Interview
    is key in qualitative research
  20. strategies used to establish the credibility of qualitative research findings
    persistent observation, peer debriefing, referential adequacy, and member checks
  21. Volunteers in qualitative research
  22. Qualitative data analysis is completed
    immediately after data collection
  23. Researchers in qualitative data conduct this
  24. Four categories of qualitative research design
    phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, and historical
  25. historical
    based on documentation, retroactive
  26. ethinoghraphy
    based on making collective observations and is used to study a particular culture
  27. ethical considerations for qualitative
    • relationship between researcher and participant
    • data-management procedures
  28. four essential elements for evaluation of qualitative research
    • credibility
    • transferability
    • dependability
    • confirmabilty
  29. data saturation
    when no new information in collected or it becomes repetitive
  30. ordinal
    a continuum of numerical values where the intervals are not meant to be equal
  31. nominal
    the lowest level of measurement whereby data are categorized simply into groups
  32. ratio
    • the highest level of measurement
    • involves numeric values
    • begin with an absolute zero and have equal intervals
  33. interval
    a continuum of numeric values with equal intervals but lacks an absolute zero
  34. interrater reliability tests are determined by
    the extent to which two raters agree
  35. ordinal
    low to high, inequal intervals
  36. four categories to describe measurements
    nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
  37. who establishes content validity
    a panel of experts
  38. power analysis
    statistical method used to determine the minimal acceptable sample size
  39. sample bias is greatest in which sampling strategy
  40. stratified random sampling
    selecting elements from an accessible population that has been divided into groups or srata
  41. sampling error
    when subjects do not represent the target population
  42. quantitative uses
    qualitative uses
    for sampling
    • probability
    • purposive
  43. systematic review
    rigorously conducted to obtain and review relevant literature to answer theoretic questions
  44. pyramid
    organizing framework that explains the importance of five levels of information to EBP healthcare delivery
  45. propositional knowledge
    based on research and scholarship
  46. synopses
    brief descriptions of the evidence
  47. propositional knowledge
    obtained from research and scholarship
  48. meta-analysis
    combines results into a measurable format, estimates the effects of proposed interventions
  49. integrative review
    • more rigorous than a traditional review
    • less rigorous than a systematic review
  50. percentage distribution
    • dividing the frequency of an event
    • by the total number of events
  51. distribution, mean is greater than the median and mode
    positively skewed
  52. minimizing type I error
    the lower the number, the more highly statistically significant it is
  53. percentile
    rank in a set of data that represents the percentage of cases that a given value exceeds
  54. frequency
    how often a variable is found to occur
  55. coding
    data analysis that involves attaching labels to each line of a transcript
  56. representativeness
    participants have the same characteristics as the target population
  57. purpose of coding qualitative data
    to categorize it into groups
  58. trustworthiness
    the quality, authenticity, and truthfulness of findings from a qualitative research
  59. a confessional tale
    a personalized account written from the researcher's viewpoint
  60. type I error
    occurs when the researcher rejects the null hypothesis when it should have been accepted
  61. type II error
    occurs when researchers inaccurately conclude that there is no relationship between the independent and dependent variables when there is
  62. axial coding
    advanced form of coding, generates categories, themes, and patterns
  63. randomized controlled trial
    experimental studies typically involving large samples and conducted in multiple sites
  64. evidence hierarachies
    predetermined scales that guide decisions for ranking evidence
  65. passive rejection
    no consideration to adopt an innovation
  66. active rejection
    purposefully deciding not to adopt an innovation
  67. adoption
    applying an innovation to practice
  68. GRADE
    • international effort to develop evidence evaluation
    • ranks strength and quality of evidence into four categories
  69. Iowa model
    EBP model that explains how organizations change practice
  70. grounded theory
    used when the researcher wants to discover the process of something

    what is the process of
  71. phenomenology
    used to study lived experiences
  72. type of research that describes culture
  73. examines in order to understand the past
  74. individuals who volunteer for qualitative studies
  75. three main sources in qualitative
    interviews, observation, and artifacts
  76. When studying what is the process of
    • Qualitative
    • Grounded Theory
  77. One wants to study a lived experience
  78. Data is categorized into groups
    numbers are assigned to categories and have no meaning
    Nominal level of measurement
  79. Continuum of numbers, intervals are not equal
    Ordinal level of measurement
  80. Continuum of values with meaning and equal intervals, but no zero
    Interval level of measurement
  81. Numeric values, equal intervals, with a zero
    Ratio level of measurement
  82. Unstructured interview with a grand tour question
    a dialog unfolds leading to more detailed information
  83. Small groups of less than 12 participants
    focus group
  84. method of sampling that does not require random selection of elements
    nonprobability sampling
  85. cluster sampling
    selecting from larger to smaller subsets of a population
  86. probability sampling
    elements from the accessible population have an equal chance of being selected for study
  87. select elements because they are easy to access
    convenience sampling
  88. elements are conveniently selected from strata instead of randomly
    quota sampling, not stratified random sampling
  89. purposive sampling
    individuals have lived the experience of have expertise
  90. randomly selecting elements from the accessible population
    simple random sampling
  91. Barriers to research
    • organizational culture
    • nurse's belief systems related to practice
    • research-related barriers