EMT-Chapter 29-Burns

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EMT-Chapter 29-Burns
2013-08-12 15:04:54
emt burns

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  1. Burn Shock
    • A condition that can occur with moderate to major burns that cover sufficient body surface area (BSA)
    • Inhalation of superheated air may lead to the lining of the larynx to swell (laryngeal edema)
  2. Superficial Burn
    • Burn that only involves the epidermis.
    • First-degree burn.
    • Red skin
    • Pain at site
    • Tenderness
    • No blisters
  3. Partial-thickness Burn
    • Burn that involves the epidermis and portions of the dermis
    • Second-degree burn
    • Blisters
    • Intense pain
    • white to red skin
    • moist and mottled skin
  4. Full-thickness Burn
    • Burn that involves all the layers of the skin and can extend beyond the subcutaneous layer into the muscle, bone, or organs.
    • Third-degree burn
    • Leathery appearance(eschar)
    • Charring, dark brown or white
    • skin hard to touch
    • no pain
    • pain at periphery of burn
  5. Eschar
    The hard, tough, leathery,dead soft tissues formed as a result of a full-thickness burn
  6. Determining the Severity of Burn
    • Depth of burn
    • Location of burn
    • Patient's age
    • Pre-existing medical conditions
    • Percentage of BSA involved
  7. Circumferential Burns
    Burn that encircles a body area.
  8. Burn Severity Classification
    • Critical burns: -Burn accompanying breathing
    • -Full or partial burns involving the face, genitalia or major joints
    • -full-thickness burns covering more than 10% BSA
    • -partial-thickness burns covering 25% BSA in people less than 50 or 20% in people older than 50/younger than 5
    • -burns complicated by a fracture to an extremity
    • -any circumferential burns
    • Moderate burns: -Full-thickness 2-10% BSA excluding the face, genitalia, or respiratory tract
    • -partial-thickness burn 15-25% BSA
    • Minor burns: -Full less than 2%
    • -partial less than 15% BSA
    • -superficial less than 50% BSA
  9. Rule of Nines
    • Standardized format to identify the amount of BSA that has been burned.
    • Head + neck 9%
    • Posterior trunk 18%
    • Anterior trunk 18%
    • Each upper extremity 9%
    • External genitalia 1%
    • Each lower extremity 18%
    • For infants: -Posterior/anterior trunk 18%
    • -Each upper extremity 9%
    • -head + neck 18%
    • -Each lower extremity 14%
  10. Rule of Ones
    • The concept that the area of a patient's palm is equal to about 1% of his BSA.
    • Rule of palms
  11. Types of Burns
    • Inhalation burns: High temperature or steam being inhaled
    • Chemical burns: Acids, alkalis, and heat generating chemicals
    • Electrical burns: result from resistance to current flow in body
    • Radiation burns: absorption of radiation into the body
  12. Causes of Burns
    • Flame burn
    • Contact burn
    • Scald: contact with hot liquid
    • Steam burn
    • Gas burn
    • Electrical burn
    • Flash burn: type of flame burn that is the result of quick ignition
  13. Primary Assessment
    • Cooling down the pt
    • After cooling, continue the ABCs
    • Determine priority transport
  14. Secondary Assessment
    • Reassessment of MOI
    • Rapid secondary
  15. Burn Sheet
    Commercially prepared sterile, particle-free, disposable sheet used to cover the entire body in severe burn injuries
  16. Emergency Medical Care
    • 1. Remove pt from source of burn
    • -stop the burn process by water or saline
    • -do not attempt to remove adhered clothing
    • 2. Maintain airway and breathing
    • 3. Classify severity and transport
    • 4. Cover the burn area with dry sterile dressing-use a burn sheet
    • 5. Keep the pt warm and treat other injuries as needed
    • 6. Transport
    • -Avoid using material that leaves particles
    • -Never apply any type of lotion, ointments
    • -Never break or drain a blister
    • -remove jewelry around the wound
    • -do not attempt to open eyelids