Chapter 1 AP Gov Vocab.txt

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Chapter 1 AP Gov Vocab.txt
2013-08-12 13:09:20

Government by the People, Chapter 1 Vocab
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  1. Government
    the procedures and institutions (such as elections, courts and legislatures) by which a people govern and rule themselves
  2. Politics
    the process by which people decide who shall govern and what policies shall be adopted
  3. Politicians
    people who fulfill the tasks of overseeing and directing a government
  4. Political Science
    the study of the principles, procedures and structures of government and the analysis of political ideas, institutions, heavier, and practices
  5. Democracy
    government by the people, both directly or indirectly, with free and frequent elections
  6. Direct Democracy
    citizens assembled to discuss and pass laws and select their officials, government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly
  7. Representative democracy/republic
    government in which the people elect those who govern and pass laws
  8. Constitutional democracy
    government that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be hard through free, fair, and relatively frequent elections
  9. Constitutionalism
    The set of arrangements, including checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, rule of law, due process, and a bill of rights that requires our leaders to listen, think, bargain, and explain before they act or make laws. We then hold them politically and legally accountable for how they exercise their powers
  10. Statism
    the idea that the rights of the nation are supreme over the rights of the individuals who make up the nation (China, Vietnam, Cuba)
  11. Popular Consent
    the idea that a just government must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs
  12. Majority Rule
    governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority
  13. Majority
    the candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election
  14. Plurality
    the candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half
  15. Federalism
    the division of powers between the national and state government
  16. Separation of powers
    divisions between the executive, judicial, and legislative branches
  17. Checks and Balances
    each branch is given the constitutional means, the political independence, and the motives to check the powers of the other branches so that a relative balance of power between the branches endures
  18. Theocracy
    government by religious leaders, who claim divine guidance (Ex: Puritans in Mass.)
  19. Articles of Confederation
    the first governing document of the confederated states, drafted in 1777, ratified in 1781, and replaced by the present Constitution in 1789
  20. Annapolis Convention
    a convention held in 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
  21. Constitutional Convention
    the convention in Philadelphia that debated and agreed on the Constitution of the United States
  22. ShaysÂ’ Rebellion
    a rebellion led by Daniel Shay of farmers in western Massachusetts protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out
  23. Bicameralism
    the principle of a two-house legislature
  24. Virginia Plan
    the initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states
  25. New Jersey Plan
    The proposal at the Constitutional Convention for a central government with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally. Also states that federal law is supreme to state law
  26. Connecticut Compromise
    the compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators
  27. Three fifths Compromise
    the compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives
  28. Federalists
    Supporters of ratification of the Constitution and a strong central government
  29. Antifederalists
    Opponents of ratification of the Constitution and of a generally strong central government
  30. The Federalist
    essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison