Chapter 2 AP Gov Vocab.txt

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Chapter 2 AP Gov Vocab.txt
2013-08-12 17:52:51

Government by the People Chapter 2 Vocab
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  1. Natural Law
    God’s or nature’s law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law
  2. Separation of Powers
    Constitutional division of powers among the legislative executive and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
  3. Checks and balances
    a constitutional grant of powers that enables each of the three branches of government to check some acts of the others and therefore ensure that no branch can dominate
  4. Divided Government
    governance divided between the parties, especially when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress
  5. Partisanship
    strong allegiance to one’s own political party, often leading to unwillingness to compromise with members of the opposing party
  6. Direct Primary
    an election in which voters choose party nominees
  7. Initiatives
    a procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
  8. Referendum
    a procedure for submitting to popular vote measures passed by the legislature or proposed amendments to a state constitution
  9. Recall
    a procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term
  10. Independent regulatory commissions
    community authority or government agency in charge for employing autonomous authority over a few areas of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity
  11. Independent Executive Agencies
    an agency that exists outside of the federal executive departments in the United States. Such an agency is constitutionally a part of the Executive branch but is independent of Presidential authority
  12. Judicial Review
    the power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or a government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. Constitution or, in a state court, the state constitution. The Supreme Court got this power through the case Marbury v. Madison
  13. Writ of Mandamus
    a court order directing an official to perform an official duty
  14. Litigation
    going to the Supreme Court to find a law unconstitutional
  15. Congressional Elaboration
    Congressional legislation that gives further meaning to the Constitution based on sometimes vague constitutional authority, such as the necessary and proper clause (allows Congress to pass laws instead of amendments)
  16. Impeachment
    a formal accusation by the lower house of a legislature against a public official, the first step in removal from office
  17. Executive Order
    a directive issued by a president or governor that has the force of law
  18. Executive Privilege
    the power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security
  19. Impoundment
    Presidential refusal to allow an agency to spend funds that Congress authorized and appropriated