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What is the most common type of kidney stone?
What type of kidney stone may form after an infection in the urinary system?
Struvite (magnesium and ammonia)
What is the rarest type of kidney stone?
cystine (building blocks of proteins)
What part of the kidney is retroperitoneal?
What are the three vessels of the kidney and what is their orientation within the hilum of the spleen?
- Anterior: Renal vein
- Middle: Renal artery
- Posterior: ureter
What is the fascia that covers both the kidney and suprarenal gland?
What is the deepest covering of the kidney?
true renal capsule
What lies between the true renal capsule and the renal fascia?
What are the four muscles that make up the posterior boarder of the kidney?
- Quadratus lumborum
- Psoas major
- Transversus abdominis
What three nerves lie posterior to the kidney?
- Subcostal (T12)
- Iliohypogastric (T12-L1)
- Ilioinguinal (L1)
What two vessels and bone have a posterior relation to the kidney?
- Subcostal vein and artery
- 12 rib
- left rib may go as high as 11 rib
At what spinal level does the renal artery come off the abdominal aorta?
What are the five branches of the renal artery?
- upper pole
- lower pole
- posterior part
- upper anterior
- lower anterior
What is different about the left renal vein?
longer and receives adrenal and left gonadal veins before passing anterior to AA and emptying into inferior vena cava
Right or left adrenal gland: tetrahedral, small, drains into IVC, lies posterior to IVC, superior part of kidney
Left or right adrenal gland: crescentic, big, drains into left renal vein, lies behind stomach, medial part of kidney
what is the length of the ureter and type of tissue lines it?
- transitional epithelium
What part of the peritoneum does the ureter descend in?
what muscle does the ureter lay on?
What two different structures does the ureter pass under in male vs female
- male: ductus deferens
- female: uterine artery
where in relation to the spine does the ureter descend?
near TP's of lumbar vertebrae
At what bony landmark does the ureter cross the pelvic brim?
What are the three areas of risk for a stone in the ureter to be lodged?
- pelvi-ureteric junction
- Crossing the pelvic brim
- Intramural part where it enters the bladder
how do you find the superior and medial edge of the kidney?
- medial border is 5 cm from midline
- Superior border: T12 (R) T11 (L)
from superficial to deep, what are the layers of tissue that must be punctured for a renal biopsy?
- subcutaneous tissue
- quadratus lumborum
- pararenal fat
- renal fascia
- Perirenal fat
- renal capsule
what is the normal capacity for the urinary bladder?
what is the most inferior portion of the bladder?
what is the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder collectively called?
What type of tissue lines the inner wall of the urinary bladder?
what three openings make up the apexes of the urinary trigone?
- superior: two ureteric orifices
- inferior: Internal urethral opening
what is the blood supply of the bladder including parent and grandparent arteries?
Superior vesical artery <-- umbilical artery <-- ant div. internal iliac
Inferior vescial artery <-- ant. div. internal iliac a. <-- common iliac artery
what covers the superior surface of the urinary bladder?
what muscles lay against the inferolateral aspect of the urinary bladder?
- obturator internus
- levator ani
what is the space between the bladder and pubic bone?
retropubic (contains adipose tissue and veins)
where do the ducti deferentia and seminal vesciles lay in relation to the urinary bladder?
Where does the uterus lay in relation to the urinary bladder?
what is the parasympathetic innervation of the bladder and function?
- S2, 3, 4
- Contraction of detrous m.
- relaxation of internal urethral sphincter
what is the sympathetic innervation of the bladder and function?
- inferior hypogastric plexus
- contraction of internal urethral sphincter during ejaculation
what are the three levator ani muscles
- pubococcygeus m.
- iliococcygeus m.
- puborectalis m.
What is the function of the glomerulus?
Filtration of water and solutes
What is the function of the proximal convoluted tubule?
Reabsorption of water and solutes
what is the function of the loop of Henle?
reabsorption of sodium and chloride
what is the function of the Distal convoluted tubles?
reabsorption/secretion of ammonia, potassium hydrogen
what nerve supplies the central part of the peritoneum
Phrenic nerve (c3-5
What nerves supply the peripheral peritoneum?
What nerve supplies the parietal peritoneum in the pelvis
what peritoneal fold contains inferior epigastric vessels
lateral umbilical fold
what peritoneal fold contains remnant of the urachus
Median umbilical fold
what peritoneal fold contains remnants of umbilical arteries
medial umbilical fold
what is another name for lesser sac of peritoneum?
What part of the female anatomy communicates with the peritoneal cavity?
what is the communication between the greater and lesser sacs of the peritoneum?
what is the medulla derived from during embryologic development?
neural crest cells