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L6. Describe the importance of early childhood services for children with Intellectual Disabilities.
Early childhood development programs are designed to mitigate the effects of ID and/or poverty.
L6. Identify the legislation that impacts early childhood programs.
Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments PL99-457 (1986) extended the same rights and privileges for three through five year-old children as those provided to school-aged students. These preschool programs are mandatory under IDEA 2004.
Amendments to IDEA in 2004 PL105-17 extended services to students aged three to nine with developmental delays and was not driven by labels.
IDEA PL 99-457 provided voluntary programs for children from birth through two years who had disabilities, were developmentally delayed or at risk for developing developmental delays. In order to be considered for early childhood special education programming, children must experience developmental delays.
L6. Describe assessments used with infants and young children.
-Criterion-referenced testing: useful for program planning since results are easily lined to curriculum objectives
-Curriculum-based assessment: measures a child's mastery of a specific set of tasks or skills.
-Judgment-based assessment: based on multiple sources to collect information about children and to supplement the data obtained from norm-referenced and criterion-referenced instruments.
-Family-directed assessment: emphasizes the importance of family involvement as equal partners on the interdisciplinary team; the family members are valid and unique sources of information...
L6 Articulate educational programming tools for young children with Intellectual Disabilities.
services for infants and toddler. Contains an IFSP for each toddler and their family.
falls under the guidelines of FAPE for children ages 3-5. May contain an IFSP or an IEP.
May have behavior management
- Cognitive-Developmental Curriculum
- -activities allow children to develop their own thinking
- -appropriate for the child's stage of development
- -child's concepts and learning develop through direct day-to-day experiences.
- -Encouragement and reinforcement foster cognitive learning
Developmentally Appropriate Practice; curriculum is an integrated, holistic approach to the education of young children. Assists children to grow socially, emotionally, cognitively, and physically.
L6 Describe the importance of child find identification.
This focus is based on the premise that children with developmental disabilities require more and different early experiences and that these early intervention programs enhance developmental progress. It is essential that states/programs identify children who are at higher risk of ID as soon as possible to expose them and their families to programming that might mitigate any effects of poverty or other delays.
L7 Articulate the components of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004).
- SPED teachers must be
- - SPED cert
- -May not have certification waived on temp or provisional basis
- -possess bachelor's degree
- Requirement for special education teachers teaching under alternate achievement standards
- - NCLB Highly qualified
- -meet NCLB reqs for elementary or middle school with subjects appropriate to the level of instruction
- -Requirements for special education teachers teaching multiple subjects
- -Must be NCLB highly qualified or new to the profession
- - must demonstrate competence in all subjects
- -If a new teacher is highly qualified in math, language, arts or science, he/she must demonstrate competence in other core subjects taught, as under NCLB, HOUSSE Rubric, NOT later than 2 years after being hired
L7 Identify assessment tools.
MET team/data review
Determine Present levels of performing
Evaluate outcomes of educational programs
Norm-referenced criteria (against same age peers)
Criterion-referenced (mastery of material)
Behavioral, adaptive, academic evaluations.
L7 Describe educational programming for school-age learners.
- Specialized accommodative practices
- Evaluative & Collaborative ActivitiesMonitoring
- Collab with other professionals
L7 Identify functional skills.
- skills needed to live a meaningful and independent life in the community.
-“skills that are frequently demanded in natural domestic, vocational, and community environments”
-Activities of daily living (e.g., personal hygiene, food preparation, shopping and housekeeping) and pre-vocational skills (e.g., job-related tasks geared towards sheltered workshop situations like sorting and assembly) were seen as the key functional skills.
-These skills include communication, cooperation, problem solving, self-initiation, and responsibility
- ACADEMIC CLASSES
- • Know and travel to classroom(s), assigned seat in room(s)
- • Participate in opening procedures
- • Have and be able to locate needed supplies (organization)
- • Follow class behavioral expectations for participation (raise hand, wait turn, use appropriate voice volume)
- • Use appropriate social skills for group interactions
- • Wait in line
- • Wait turn for an activity
- • Ask questions on topic of class activity • Speak/communicate to whole group
- • Use a computer (with adaptations as needed)
- • Complete tasks and know what to do when done
- • Practice reading , writing, math skills (for application in subject areas)
- AFTER SCHOOL ACTIVITIES
- • Greet peers
- • Occupy self with age-appropriate leisure activity
- • Know personal information (phone numbers, address, parents’ name, etc.)
- • Cooperate with others in small group
- • Wait for a turn
- • Follow directions
- • Use reading, writing, math skills related to activity
L7 Identify components of the IEP.
- -Statement of the student's present levels of educational performance
- -Statement of measurable annual goals, not including benchmarks or objectives
- -Statement of special education placement, related services and supplemental aids and services and a statement of the program modifications or supports for school personnel that will be provided
- -Explanation of the extent, if any, to which the student will not participate with non-disabled students in the regular classStatement of any individual modifications, if any, in the administration of state or district-wide assessments of student achievement
- -Projected date for the beginning of the services and modifications and the anticipated frequency, location, and duration of those services and modifications
- -Statement of how the student's progress will be measured and how the student's parents will be regularly informed
- -There are also sections in the IEP that will address the need for transition services (upon the age of 16) and the age of majority (1 year before age 18 the rights are transferred from the parent to the child).
- -The consideration of ESY (extended school year) services must also be considered by the team
L7 Identify IEP team members.
- he importance of the IEP team has been stressed in the 2004 amendments to IDEA. The team is composed of:
- -The parents of the student
- -At least one general education teacher
- -At least one special education teacher
- -A representative of the LEA or local education agency
- -An individual who can interpret evaluation results (psychologist)
- -Other individuals (discretion of parent)
- -The student (if appropriate)
L8 Identify educational environmental options.
- Personnel Supports
- Itinerant Services
- Separate School
L8 Define transition services.
Services for secondary age students who will eventually "age out" of FAPE. These services are in the IEPs to help students identify goals and develop lans of action for life after FAPE.
L8 Identify transition programs.
Designed to get students ready to transition from school to life after FAPE.
- Vocational Training/Prep
-Supported Work environs
L8 Compare and contrast career development with vocational training.
- Comparecareer developments involve the preparation of individuals for roles as:
- Family member
Career goals may require various levels and types of support in order to be achieved. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities are capable of achieving success in the workplace and in the community with supports and services.
- Voc TrainingWork-based learning experiences
- School-to-work Programs:
- Supported employment/workplace supports
- Individual placement model
- Mobile work crew model
- Enclave model
- Entrepreneurial model
L9 Describe a variety of different models of family functioning.
- Family Paradigms Model- Focus on the interaction of family members.
- -Environmentally sensitive families
- -Interpersonally distant families
- -Consensus sensitive families
- Adaptability Model- how well families adapt to their situations
- -Severely dysfunctional
- Developmental Model- the development of individual
- -Single person
- -Married person
- -Young family
- -Families with adolescents
- -Empty Nesters
L9 Identify the major areas of support services.
- -Family support services
- -Financial supports
- -Coordinated wraparound services
L9 Articulate the key issues faced by families.
- -Personal safety
- -Planning for later years
L9 Identify struggles (re: financial resources, accessing care coordination and meeting the demands of the life span).
- Financial resources:
- -modifying the home
- -extra care expenses
- -job accommodations/scheduling
- Physical: -Extensive caregiving
- -Sleep disruption
- -Meeting therapeutic needs
- -Attending meetings
- Medical: -Refusals or limits on health care
- -Daily tx
- -Time for appts
- Social/Emo: -Restricted time for self
- -Explanations to siblings/others
- -Dealing with reactions of others
- -Scrutiny by professionals
L10 Identify the importance of assistive technology for persons with Intellectual Disabilities.
Assistive technology can "level the playing field" for students with disabilities or "enhance their performance"; giving them opportunities to fully participate in their education.
- Including:positioning equipment
- mobility devices
- computer applications
- adaptive toys and games
- adaptive environments
- electronic interfaces
- medical equipment
- alternative and augmentative communication aids
L10 Identify policies and legislation related to assistive technology.
The evaluation of the needs of a child with a disability, including a functional evaluation of the child in the child's customary environment.
Purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition of assistive technology devices by children with disabilities
Coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or services with assistive technology devices, such as those associated with existing education and rehabilitation plans and programs
Training or technical assistance for professionals (including individuals providing education or rehabilitation services), employers, or other individuals who provide services to employ or are otherwise substantially involved in the motor life function of that child
Selecting designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying, maintaining, repairing or replacing assistive technology devices
The Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1998 addresses the need for increased access to technology by individuals with disabilities. This act supports states so that they can address the assistive needs of persons with disabilities and provides loans to individuals who want to purchase assistive technology.
L10 Discuss current trends and issues of assistive technology in public school.
Societal issues such as economic trends that impact higher education costs
Cultural/equity issues such as lower-income schools with more minority students that have less access to computers
Educational issues that include directed vs. constructivist views of technology use
Technical issues that impact the teacher's ability to keep up with technology developments and schools that lack the infrastructure to keep up with new technologies
L10 Pinpoint strategies for overcoming barriers to assistive technology.
Make sure professionals are trained to the types of technology, how to match it to students' needs, and understand the importance of AT in the lives of the students.