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What is operant conditioning?
A type of learning in which the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated in the future depends on whether it produced a positive of negative consequence
What is positive and negative reinforcement?
- Positive: Giving a positive consequence for a behaviour to strengthen that behaviour
- Negative: Taking away an unpleasant stimulus which in turn strengthens the behaviour
What is negative and positive punishment?
- Negative: Taking away a valued stimulus reducing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated
- Positive: Giving a negative consequence which reduces the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated to avoid the
WHat is continuous reinforcement?
Reinforcing every correct behaviour
What is the difference between fixed and variable ratio schedules?
- Fixed ratio: giving a reinforcer after a specified number of time the behaviour has been executed
- Variable ratio: reinforcing the behaviour after an unpredictable number of correct responses
What is the difference between fixed interval and variable interval schedules of reinforcement?
- Fixed interval: Reinforcing the behaviour after a specified time period. eg. being payed every 2 weeks
- Variable interval: Reinforcing the behaviour in varying periods
What is the most and least resistant to extinction?
- Most resistant: variable ratio as it is unpredictable
- Least resistant: fixed interval
What are the 3 factors that influence the effectiveness of reinforcement or punishment?
- Order of presentation: the consequence must occur after the response so the organism associates the consequence with the behaviour
- Timing: the consequence must occur close in time to the desired response as possible.
- Appropriateness of the consequence: a reinforcer must provide a pleasant consequence; a punisher must cause an unpleasant stimulus
What is stimulus generalisation:
Occurs when the correct response is made to another stimulus which is similar to the stimulus for which reinforcement is obtained
What is stimulus discrimination?
when the organism produces the response to a stimulus for which the reinforcement is obtained only but not for any other similar stimulus
What is extinction?
When the organism no longer produces the desired response to a stimulus after a period of the behaviour occuring but not being reinforced
What is spontaneous recovery?
When the desired response is shown after extinction after a rest period of time of no stimulus or reinforcement
What is shaping?
A procedure in which a reinforcer is given for any response that gets closer and closer and eventually leads to the desired response or target behaviour
What is a token economy?
- A consistent use of operant conditiong to alter behaviour over time by using tokens as rewards that can be 'cashed in' for bigger rewards later
- eg. Stimulus: A question in class
- Behaviour: answering question
- Consequence: token
What is the role of the learner?
Active: the behaviour must be initiated by the learner
What is the nature of the response?
It is voluntary: the learner is in control of the behaviour
How is the desired response acquired?
By reinforcing desired response