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all.txt
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  1. what are the five areas of the thorax?
    inlet, outlet, pleural cavities, anterior thoratic wall (mammary gland & muscles) mediastinum
  2. identify boundaries and content of the pleural cavity?
    • lungs
    • inferior:diaphram
    • superior:
    • anterior:
    • posterior:
    • lateral:
  3. identify the boundaries and content of the pericardium cavity?
    heart
  4. identify the boundaries and content of the mediastinum cavity?
    contents: brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava, vagus nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve, phrenic nerve, heart and great vessels, trachea and primary bronchi, inferior vena cava
  5. _______ of the neck is the inlet of the thorax
    root
  6. outlet of thorax is the ___________
    diaphram
  7. the xiphoid process is the midline for what structure(s)? superior level of the _________, central tendon of the _________, inferior border of ___________
    • liver
    • diaphragm
    • heart
  8. when numbering the ribs ___________ _________ is the first landmark to identify before you start counting.
    Sternal Angle
  9. the _____________what prevents the first rib from being palpated
    clavicle
  10. identify intrinsic muscles of the thoratic wall: _______________intercostals(superficial) , ______________ intercostals (middle), ___________ intercostals(deep)
    • External Intercostal mm. (Elevate)‏(superficial)
    • Anteriorly replaced by membrane
    • Internal Intercostal mm. (Depress)‏(middle)
    • Posteriorly replaced by membrane
    • Innermost Intercostal mm. (Depress)‏
    • Only found in most lateral of Space(deep)
  11. __________ intercostals -posteriorly, the muscle is replaced by ___________ intercostal membrane -fibers angled backwards -expiration=lowers ribs
    internal intercostals
  12. __________ intercostals -anteriorly, the muscle is replaced by ___________ intercostal membrane. It is superficiial and elevates.
    external
  13. ___________ intercostals are only found in the most lateral of space (deep), and depresses
    Innermost
  14. the main thoratic lymphatic duct empties into the venous system near the union of the _________ _________ ________and the ___________ veins
    left internal jugular and subclavian veins
  15. ___________ ___________excess connective tissue fluid (lymph is the fluid that is formed when interstital fluid enters the initial lymphatic vessels of the lymphatic system)
    lymph fluid
  16. _________ lymph drains right side of head and neck and right upper limb.
    • ___________ duct drains remainder of body.
    • right
    • thoracic
  17. _______ system is dominant on the right side of the body while the ________
    • system is dominant on the left
    • venous
    • lympatic
  18. the main thoracic lymphatic duct empties into the venous system near the union of the ________ ________ jugular and the ____________ vein
    left internal jugular and subclavian veins
  19. The _____________ lymph node is the first lymph node to which cancer is likely to spread from the primary tumor. Cancer cells may appear in the __________ node before spreading to other lymph nodes. In some cases, there can be more than one ________ lymph node.
    sentinel
  20. Breast Tissue extends into the __________
    (Axillary Tail)
  21. what is the significance in breast cancer of the sentineal lymph node?
    • Hypothetical first lymph node or group of nodes reached by metastasizing cancer cells from a primary tumor.
    • Because lymph axillary tail goes into the axilla area and can become cancerous as well.
  22. why does a self-check breast exam include the axilla?
    sentinel lymph node is a cancer hot spot a self check includes the axilla due to the axillary tail of the mammary gland.
  23. the mammary gland is classified as a _________ ________ gland?
    modified sweat
  24. identify subdivisions of bronchial tree?
    • left and right main bronchis
    • divides into ________ bronchi (2L 3R)
    • -divides into ___________ bronchi
    • -divides into ___________ broncholes which supply the bronchopulmonary segment
    • -divides into ___________ bronchioles
    • -divides into __________ _____________
    • lober
    • segmental
    • terminal
    • respiratory
    • aveoli sacs
  25. _______________ is used to assess air flow through the tracheobronchial tree into the _________ with a stethescope. it is used clinically to listen to patients ______ breath sounds if healthy there will be no sound
    • auscultation,
    • lung
    • bilateral
  26. _________ _________ is where is the primary gas exchange in the lungs takes place
    alveolar sacs
  27. ________ lung:superior lobe, middle lobe, inferior lobe
    right
  28. _______ lung: superior lobe, inferior lobe
    left
  29. what is the clinical significance of the apex of the lung?
    cupula
  30. the lobes of the right and left lung and the markings on both the mediastinal and costal surfaces. Left lung has a superior and inferior lobe with a ________ notch on the distal part of the _________ lobe.
    • cardiac notch
    • superior lob
  31. in the left lung Oblique fissure separates the _________ and ___________ lobes.
    superior inferior
  32. in the right lung the _________ fissure separates superior from middle
    oblique
  33. The horizontal fissure separates _______ and ___________ of the right lung
    superior and middle
  34. Air in the ___________ cavity (pneumothorax) results in collapse of the lung.
    pleural
  35. Because of the slope of the first rib, the ________ of the pleura and the apex of the lung project upward into the neck, posterior to the sternomastoid, and hence may be injured in wounds of the neck. Their highest point is 2 to 3 cm or more above the level of the medial third of the clavicle
    cupola
  36. The _______ is rounded and fills the cupola of the pleura
    apex
  37. The portion of the upper lobe of the ________ lung that lies between the cardiac notch and the oblique fissure is known as the ________ , and it corresponds to the middle lobe of the right lung
    • left
    • lingula
  38. ____________ arteriosum (fetal structure) is the structure during embryonic development allows blood to bypass the lungs and what becomes this structure after birth ____________ arteriosum (adult structure)
    • ductus
    • ligamentum
  39. what are the three structural layers of the heart?________ (thin external layer), _______ (thick middle layer), ___________ (inner layer)
    epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
  40. conduction system of the heart:______________ node-stimulus originates in the ________ node and travels across the walls of the atria causing them to contract. initiates and regulates heartbeat (the pacemaker of the heart)
    Sinoatrial
  41. Koch's Triangle—a triangle enclosed by the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve, the coronary sinus, and the membraneous part of the interatrial septum is where the __ __ node is
  42. ______________ Node-distributes the SA node signal to the ventricles through __________ bundle. Stimulus descends to the apex of the heart through the bundle branches. After stimulus reaches the Purjinkie fibers, ther ventricles contract path of blood through the heart
    Atrioventricular
  43. _____________ node is a group of cells positioned on the wall of the right atrium, near the entrance of the superior vena cava.
  44. The ___________ _________ node is an area of specialized tissue between the atria and the ventricles of the heart, specifically in the posteroinferior region of the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus, which conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles. The AV node is quite compact (~1 x 3 x 5 mm).[2] It is located at the center of Koch's Triangle—a triangle enclosed by the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve, the coronary sinus, and the membraneous part of the interatrial septum.
  45. Be able to identify the vessels that form the coronary circulation. arteries:
    left and right ________ arteries, _____________ artery, ____________ branch, p________ and a__________ ___________ arteries.
  46. Be able to identify the vessels that form the coronary circulation. veins:
    _________________,__________, and ____________ cardiac veins, and the _______ sinus.
  47. small, medium, and great
    cornary
  48. diff between a & veins is that,
    • __________ have thicker walls
    • ________________have thinner walls and also contain ________
    • arteries
    • veins
    • valves
  49. The tunicas, venous valves, larger elastic content in ______________
    arteries
  50. name the endocrine organs that are found in the thorax, in the abdomen, and pelivs?
    thymus (involution),adrenals,kidney (cortex, medulla), pancreas, gonads (ovaries and testies)
  51. stomach (gastrin) and duodenum (secretin) are considered what function due to special cells?
    endocrine function
  52. ____________ venous system drains
  53. the __________ ___________ vein is the embryonic structure that became the ligamentum teres of the liver.
    left umbilical
  54. __________ ___________ is a system of vessels in which blood after passing through one capillary bed is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation
    portal system
  55. the bile stored in the gallbladder primarily imulsifies down what types of materials?
    carbs, fats, and or proteins
  56. significance of the _________ ___________is that it has different epithelial lining then the rest of the urinary bladder, and this is where urinary bladder _________ can originate
    • vessel trigone
    • cancer
  57. _________ ____________ (vesicle) of the male reproductive glands makes the largest contribution to semen.
    seminal glands
  58. the _______ gland in a male can obstruct the urethra
    prostate
  59. pathway of fertilized ovum from ovary to implantation
    egg starts in ovary,fimbrea,infantabulum,ampulla****,ishamus, body of uterus and implants onto wall
  60. capillaries connect the ___________ and _____________sides of circulation.
    arterial and venous
  61. Abdominal regions right and left ________________, __________________, _____________ and ______________ and ___________
  62. hypochondriac
    • lumbar,
    • iliac
    • hypogastric
    • epigastric
  63. liver and large intestine are located in the _______ _____________ region?
    right hypochondriac
  64. structure/organ within left hypochondriac region contains __________, __________, and _________
    liver, stomach, and spleen
  65. epigastric region contains the _______ _________ and the ___________
    gall bladder and liver
  66. right kidney and large intestine can be found in the _______ ________ region?
    right lumbar
  67. _________ ___________ region contains the spleen, pancreas, large intestine, and stomach
    left lumbar region
  68. stomach, pancreas, small and large intestineis found within the ___________ region
    umbilical
  69. appendix and large intestine are with in the _______ _________ regiomn
    right illiac
  70. large intestine is within the ______ ________ region
    left illiac
  71. urinary bladder, prostate gland, ovary, rectum, and large intestine the bronchial arteries arise from ___________ region
    hypogastric region
  72. the Heart is bounded anteriorly by the ________
    sternum
  73. ____________ is the final product of blood coagulation step in hemostasis
    thrombus/thrombi
  74. ________ _________ attaches to the greater curvature of the stomach
    greater omemtum
  75. ____________,____________, and___________ are subdivisions of the small intestine
    duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  76. __________, ____________, and ____________ are the subdivisions of the large intestine
  77. clinical significance of the apex of the lung (__________)t he apex sticks up _________ level of first rib into the _______ of the _______
    • capulla
    • above
    • root of the neck
  78. The fibrous framework of dense collagen forms four fibrous rings, which surround the orifices of the valves, right and left ___________ ___________ (formed by connecting the rings, and the membranous parts of the____________ and ______________ septa).
    • fibrous trigones
    • interatrial
    • interventricular
  79. origin of the azygos and the hemiazygos venous system is from IVC, ascending __________ veins & renal veins. Hemiazygos dumps into the azygos..?
    lumbar
  80. the azygos and hemiazygos connect to each other by crossing the ________ of the body
    midline
  81. ___________ venous system drains right side of ___________ wall and empties into the SVC. variation can occur
    • azygos
    • thoracic
  82. the right bronchial vein drains into the ___________ vein
    azygos
  83. the left bronchial vein drains into the _________ vein or the left intercostal vein
    (accessory ) hemiazygos
  84. the hemiazygos dumps into the _______ vein
    azygos
  85. hemiazyos venous system left side drains to the _________ side.
    right
  86. what are the five areas of the thorax?
    inlet, outlet, pleural cavities, anterior thoratic wall (mammary gland & muscles) mediastinum
  87. identify boundaries and content of the pleural cavity?
    • lungs
    • inferior:diaphram
    • superior:
    • anterior:
    • posterior:
    • lateral:
  88. identify the boundaries and content of the mediastinum cavity?
    contents: brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava, vagus nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve, phrenic nerve, heart and great vessels, trachea and primary bronchi, inferior vena cava
  89. _______ of the neck is the inlet of the thorax
    root
  90. outlet of thorax is the ___________
    diaphram
  91. the xiphoid process is the midline for what structure(s)? superior level of the _________, central tendon of the _________, inferior border of ___________
    • liver
    • diaphragm
    • heart
  92. when numbering the ribs ___________ _________ is the first landmark to identify before you start counting.
    Sternal Angle
  93. the _____________what prevents the first rib from being palpated
    clavicle
  94. identify intrinsic muscles of the thoratic wall: _______________intercostals(superficial) , ______________ intercostals (middle), ___________ intercostals(deep)
    • External Intercostal mm. (Elevate)‏(superficial)
    • Anteriorly replaced by membrane
    • Internal Intercostal mm. (Depress)‏(middle)
    • Posteriorly replaced by membrane
    • Innermost Intercostal mm. (Depress)‏
    • Only found in most lateral of Space(deep)
  95. __________ intercostals -posteriorly, the muscle is replaced by ___________ intercostal membrane -fibers angled backwards -expiration=lowers ribs
    internal intercostals
  96. __________ intercostals -anteriorly, the muscle is replaced by ___________ intercostal membrane. It is superficiial and elevates.
    external
  97. ___________ intercostals are only found in the most lateral of space (deep), and depresses
    Innermost
  98. the main thoratic lymphatic duct empties into the venous system near the union of the _________ _________ ________and the ___________ veins
    left internal jugular and subclavian veins
  99. ___________ ___________excess connective tissue fluid (lymph is the fluid that is formed when interstital fluid enters the initial lymphatic vessels of the lymphatic system)
    lymph fluid
  100. _________ lymph drains right side of head and neck and right upper limb.
    • ___________ duct drains remainder of body.
    • right
    • thoracic
  101. the main thoracic lymphatic duct empties into the venous system near the union of the ________ ________ jugular and the ____________ vein
    left internal jugular and subclavian veins
  102. The _____________ lymph node is the first lymph node to which cancer is likely to spread from the primary tumor. Cancer cells may appear in the __________ node before spreading to other lymph nodes. In some cases, there can be more than one ________ lymph node.
    sentinel
  103. Breast Tissue extends into the __________
    (Axillary Tail)
  104. what is the significance in breast cancer of the sentineal lymph node?
    • Hypothetical first lymph node or group of nodes reached by metastasizing cancer cells from a primary tumor.
    • Because lymph axillary tail goes into the axilla area and can become cancerous as well.
  105. why does a self-check breast exam include the axilla?
    sentinel lymph node is a cancer hot spot a self check includes the axilla due to the axillary tail of the mammary gland.
  106. the mammary gland is classified as a _________ ________ gland?
    modified sweat
  107. identify subdivisions of bronchial tree?
    • left and right main bronchis
    • divides into ________ bronchi (2L 3R)
    • -divides into ___________ bronchi
    • -divides into ___________ broncholes which supply the bronchopulmonary segment
    • -divides into ___________ bronchioles
    • -divides into __________ _____________
    • lober
    • segmental
    • terminal
    • respiratory
    • aveoli sacs
  108. _______________ is used to assess air flow through the tracheobronchial tree into the _________ with a stethescope. it is used clinically to listen to patients ______ breath sounds if healthy there will be no sound
    • auscultation,
    • lung
    • bilateral
  109. _________ _________ is where is the primary gas exchange in the lungs takes place
    alveolar sacs
  110. ________ lung:superior lobe, middle lobe, inferior lobe
    right
  111. _______ lung: superior lobe, inferior lobe
    left
  112. what is the clinical significance of the apex of the lung?
    cupula
  113. ____________ arteriosum (fetal structure) is the structure during embryonic development allows blood to bypass the lungs and what becomes this structure after birth ____________ arteriosum (adult structure)
    • ductus
    • ligamentum
  114. what are the three structural layers of the heart?
    epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
  115. conduction system of the heart:______________ node-stimulus originates in the SA node and travels across the walls of the atria causing them to contract. initiates and regulates heartbeat (the pacemaker of the heart)
    Sinoatrial
  116. ______________ Node-distributes the SA node signal to the ventricles through __________ bundle. Stimulus descends to the apex of the heart through the bundle branches. After stimulus reaches the Purjinkie fibers, ther ventricles contract path of blood through the heart
    Atrioventricular
  117. _____________ node is a group of cells positioned on the wall of the right atrium, near the entrance of the superior vena cava.
  118. The ___________ _________ node is an area of specialized tissue between the atria and the ventricles of the heart, specifically in the posteroinferior region of the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus, which conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles. The AV node is quite compact (~1 x 3 x 5 mm).[2] It is located at the center of Koch's Triangle—a triangle enclosed by the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve, the coronary sinus, and the membraneous part of the interatrial septum.
    sa
  119. Be able to identify the vessels that form the coronary circulation. arteries:
    • left and right ________ arteries, _____________ artery, ____________ branch, p________ ________________.
    • cornary a
    • circumflex a
    • marginal b
    • posterior interventircular
  120. Be able to identify the vessels that form the coronary circulation. veins:
    _________________,__________, and ____________ cardiac veins, and the _______ sinus.
  121. small, medium, and great
    cornary
  122. diff between a & veins is that,
    • __________ have thicker walls
    • ________________have thinner walls and also contain ________
    • arteries
    • veins
    • valves
  123. The tunicas, venous valves, larger elastic content in ______________
    arteries
  124. name the endocrine organs that are found in the thorax, in the abdomen, and pelivs?
    thymus (involution),adrenals,kidney (cortex, medulla), pancreas, gonads (ovaries and testies)
  125. stomach (gastrin) and duodenum (secretin) are considered what function due to special cells?
    endocrine function
  126. the __________ ___________ vein is the embryonic structure that became the ligamentum teres of the liver.
    left umbilical
  127. __________ ___________ is a system of vessels in which blood after passing through one capillary bed is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation
    portal system
  128. the bile stored in the gallbladder primarily imulsifies down what types of materials?
    carbs, fats, and or proteins
  129. significance of the _________ ___________is that it has different epithelial lining then the rest of the urinary bladder, and this is where urinary bladder _________ can originate
    • vessel trigone
    • cancer
  130. _________ ____________ (vesicle) of the male reproductive glands makes the largest contribution to semen.
    seminal glands
  131. the _______ gland in a male can obstruct the urethra
    prostate
  132. pathway of fertilized ovum from ovary to implantation egg starts in ovary,then to the ____________,infantabulum,ampulla****,___________, body of uterus and implants onto wall
    • fimbrea
    • ishamus
  133. capillaries connect the ___________ and _____________sides of circulation.
    arterial and venous
  134. Abdominal regions right and left ________________, __________________, _____________ and ______________ and ___________
    • hypochondriac
    • lumbar,
    • iliac
    • hypogastric
    • epigastric
  135. liver and large intestine are located in the _______ _____________ region?
    right hypochondriac
  136. structure/organ within left hypochondriac region contains __________, __________, and _________
    liver, stomach, and spleen
  137. epigastric region contains the _______ _________ and the ___________
    gall bladder and liver
  138. right kidney and large intestine can be found in the _______ ________ region?
    right lumbar
  139. _________ ___________ region contains the spleen, pancreas, large intestine, and stomach
    left lumbar region
  140. stomach, pancreas, small and large intestineis found within the ___________ region
    umbilical
  141. appendix and large intestine are with in the _______ _________ regiomn
    right illiac
  142. large intestine is within the ______ ________ region
    left illiac
  143. urinary bladder, prostate gland, ovary, rectum, and large intestine the bronchial arteries arise from ___________ region
    hypogastric region
  144. the Heart is bounded anteriorly by the ________
    sternum
  145. ____________ is the final product of blood coagulation step in hemostasis
    thrombus/thrombi
  146. ________ _________ attaches to the greater curvature of the stomach
    greater omemtum
  147. ____________,____________, and___________ are subdivisions of the small intestine
    duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  148. __________, ____________, and ____________ are the subdivisions of the large intestine
  149. clinical significance of the apex of the lung (__________)t he apex sticks up _________ level of first rib into the _______ of the root of then neck
    • capulla
    • above
  150. The fibrous framework of dense collagen forms four fibrous rings, which surround the orifices of the valves, right and left ___________ ___________ (formed by connecting the rings, and the membranous parts of the____________ and ______________ septa).
    • fibrous trigones
    • interatrial
    • interventricular
  151. origin of the azygos and the hemiazygos venous system? Where are they connected? (A&M pg 74-80)
    • from IVC, ascending lumbar veins & renal veins. Hemiazygos dumps into the azygos.
    • the right bronchial vein drains into the ___________ vein
    • azygos
  152. the left bronchial vein drains into the _________ vein or the left intercostal vein
    (accessory ) hemiazygos
  153. the hemiazygos dumps into the _______ vein
    azygos
  154. All regions of the body except the right upper limb and right side of the head, neck, and thorax (see fig. 24-5) are drained by the __________ duct into one of the large veins of the neck, e.g., the left ____________ jugular vein.
    • thoracic
    • left
    • All regions of the body except the right upper limb and right side of the head, neck, and thorax (see fig. 24-5) are drained by the __________ duct into one of the large veins of the neck, e.g., the left ____________ jugular vein.
    • thoracic
    • left
  155. _________ Pleura Covers lungs (all surfaces)‏Cannot be dissected from lungs
    visceral
  156. The Z-Line of the esophageal-gastric junction, marks the boundary between two types of epithelial lining; the ________ to the __________.•
    * i.e. gastric reflux changes the epithelium of the esophagus as a result this may lead to the production of ___________in the esophagus.
    • esophogus
    • stomach
    • cancer
  157. a ____________ is a double layer of peritoneum.
    mesentery
  158. a messentary is important because it Provides means for neurovascular communication between the ______ and ________ wall.
    • organ
    • body
  159. _________ is formed as an organ invaginatees into the abdominal cavity
    organ, developmentally becomes susspended in abdominal cavity.
    messentary
  160. a _______ ligament is a Double layer of _________ , that connects an organ with another _______ or to the wall of ________l. supports abdominal vscera
    • peritoneal
    • peritoneum
    • organ
    • body
  161. •double-layer extension of the peritoneum passing from the stomach and proximal part of the duodenum to adjacent organs. is an ___________. (A&M pg 138)
    omentum
  162. 59.Identify the 3 subdivisions of the small intestine. (A&M pg 150)
    • •Duodenum
    • •Jejunum
    • •Ilium
  163. 60.What is the action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the intestine?
    •__________, constricts blood vessels and contracts internal anal sphincter
    •___________, stimulates digestive juices, relaxes sphincter, etc.
    • •Sympathetic,]
    • •Parasympathetic
  164. _________, _________, and _______ cana, are subdivisions of the large intestine? (A&M pg 155)
    • •Cecum
    • •Colon (ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid)
    • •Anal cana
  165. 62. What are the three identifying characteristics of the large intestine that distinguishes it from small intestine?
    ______ intestine is longer and more mobile)
    small
  166. _______ ________three thick bands of longitudinal muscle
    fibers) part of the large intestines
    Teniae Coli
  167. _________ (pouches between the teniae coli) of the large intestines
    Haustra
  168. large intestines have •__________ ________ (small fatty appendages on colon)
    • Omental appendices
  169. What is a hernia? What is the difference between a direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
    a ________ inguinal hernia enters through a weak point in the fascia of the abdominal wall,
    whereas a ________ inguinal hernia protrudes through the inguinal ring and is ultimately the result of the failure of embryonic closure of the internal inguinal ring after the testicle passes through it (usually a congenital condition)
    • direct
    • indirect
  170. a. ____________ recess – separates spleen from _-11th ribs
    • costodiaphragmatic
    • 9
  171. ___________ ligament – connects to greater curvature of stomach at the spleen ????
    gastrosplenic
  172. ________ ligament – connected to left kidney to the spleen
    splenorenal
  173. splenic vein unites with SMV to form this _______ vein
    portal
  174. __________ __________ allow for free communication between the supracolic and infracolic compartments of the abdomen
    Intestenal gutters
  175. •The adrenals sit on top of the kidneys and the kidneys are underneath the ___________ toward the back.•
    diaphragm
  176. the _______ __________ are located on the superomedial aspects of the kidneys and diaphragmatic crura, where they are surrounded by considerable connective tissue
    adrenal glands
  177. Where do the blood vessels to the suprarenal glands originate from the _________ aorta
    •from the Abdominal Aorta
  178. 69.What is the difference between the renal sinus and the renal pelvis?
    renal _________ contains the renal pelvis, calyces, vessels and fat

    Renal _______ acts as funnel to collect urine and gives rise to the ureter
    • sinus
    • pelvis
  179. the renal fascia and fat surrounds the _______ to protect them.
    kidneys
  180. The significance of the ___________ is that is has different epithelial lining then the rest of the urinary bladder, this is where urinary bladder
    cancer can originate.

    smooth triangular area on surface of bladder containing the openings of the ureters and an opening to the urethra
    trigone
  181. 74.Be able to identify the structural differences between the male and female pelvic bone. (Video) (A&M pg 207 Table 3.1)
    •Females have a larger Pubic Arch than males
  182. 75.What are the divisions of the pelvic bone? (A&M pg 204-206)
    •Greater & Lesser Pelvis?
  183. 76.What is the landmark for the division of the true pelvis from the false pelvis?
    ________ ________ of the pelvic inlet
  184. •Oblique plane of Pelvic Inlet
  185. 77.What are the bones that form the pelvic girdle? (A&M pg 204)
    • illum
    • ishium
    • pubis
  186. 78.What is the importance of the sub pubic angle? (A&M pg 205, see question 74)
    •can be measured with fingers in vagina during pelvic exam
  187. Tell me what are the boundaries of the brim ( inlet of pelvis)
    • Lateral--sacroiliac joint , ileopectineal line , upper borders of pubic bones
    • Posterior---sacral promontory , and ala of sacrum.
    • Anteriorly---Superior border of symphysis pubis.
  188. 79.Identify the three places where the ureter is constricted. (A&M pg 176)
    •at junction of _____ and _______ pelvis

    •where ureters cross the _______ of pelvic inlet

    •during passage through wall of ________
    • ureturs and renal
    • brim
    • bladder
  189. 80.Identify the three largest nerves of the lumbar plexus and in general what structures do they supply? (A&M pg 192)
    • •Obturator Nerve L2- L4 (supply adductor muscles)
    • •Femoral Nerve L2 – L4 (supply flexors of the hip and extensors of the knee)
    • •Lumbrosacral Trunk L4- L5 (participates in formation of sacral plexus)
  190. •Obturator Nerve L2- L4 (supply ________ muscles)
    •Femoral Nerve L2 – L4 (supply _______ of the hip and ________ of the knee)
    •Lumbrosacral Trunk L4- L5 (participates in formation of _______ plexus)
    • adductor
    • flexor extensor
    • sacral
  191. 81.What are the branches of the internal iliac artery? (A&M pg 222-223) EX: Obturator, Vesicle, Gonadal, Rectal, and Internal Pudendal.
    lumbar and iliac branches
    Lateral sacral arteries
    Superior gluteal artery
    Obturator artery (occasionally from inferior epigastric artery)
    Inferior gluteal artery
    Umbilical artery
    Uterine artery (females)
    deferential artery (males)
    Vaginal artery (females, can also arise from uterine artery)
    inferior vesical artery
    Middle rectal artery
    Internal pudendal artery
  192. 82.Which of the male reproductive glands makes the largest contribution to semen?
    • Seminal Glands (Vesicle)
    • •Testes
  193. 83.In the male this gland can obstruct the urethra.
    •Prostate gland
  194. 84.Be able to give, in order, the pathway that sperm would travel through the male duct system into the urethra. (Lab Manual pg 217-218)
    • •1) Seminiferous Tubules
    • •2) Tubuli Recti
    • •3) Rete Testis
    • •4) Efferent Ductules
    • •5) Epididymis
    • •6) Ductus Deferens (vas deferens)
    • •7) Ampulla
  195. The spermatic veins that form the spermatic cord (Fig. 1147) emerge from the back of the testis, and receive tributaries from the epididymis: they unite and form a convoluted plexus,the plexus ________________,which forms the chief mass of the cord; the vessels composing thisplexus are very numerous, they unite toform three or four veins, which pass along the inguinal canal, and,entering the abdomen through the abdominal inguinal ring, coalesce toform two vein then eventually 1.
    pampiniformis
  196. The contents of the abdominal cavity may protrude into the spermatic cord, producing an ________ inguinal hernia.
    indirect
  197. contents of spermatic cord
    arteries: testicular artery, deferential artery, cremasteric arterynerves: nerve to cremaster (genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve) , sympathetic nerves vas deferens (ductus deferens)pampiniform plexuslymphatic vesselsprocessus vaginalis (remains of)
  198. 86.What is the action of the cremaster (skeletal muscle) and dartos (smooth) muscles? (A&M pg 130-132)
    • •Both help move the testicles to/away from the body, depending on
    • temperature. Dartos wrinkles the scrotum when cold, helping to hold
    • scrotum closer to body (testicular elevation)
  199. Trace the pathway of a fertilized ovum from the ovary to implantation. Where does fertilization normally take place?
    • egg starts in ovary
    • fimbrea
    • infantabulum
    • ampulla****
    • ishamus body of uterus and implants onto wall (inturmural?)
  200. three layers of the uterus? (A&M pg 237)
    • •Perimetrium
    • •Myometrium
    • •Endometrium
  201. fertilization of the egg typically takes place in the _______ part of the fallopin tubes
    ampulla
  202. uterine tube has four named parts:_____________ is the funnel shaped opening - fimbria encircle this opening;_________ is a dilated region that connects the with the ________; isthmus is the constricted part nearest the uterus; _________ part is
    within the uterine wall
    • infundibulum
    • ampula
    • isthmus
    • intramural
  203. __________ _________ is a result of implentation to be somewhere else then uterus and instead implants in mucosa of uterine tube (usually), but implantation can also occur in the cervix, ovaries, and abdomen.
    ectopic pregnancy
  204. Levator Ani, Coccygeus muscles and associated facias muscles form the pelvic ________
    diaphragm/floor
  205. 92.What are the boundaries of the urogenital triangle? Male? Female? (A&M pg 248-253)
    •root of scrotum/penis in males and the external in females and anterior anal triangle
  206. The urogenital (UG) triangle is the ________ portion of the perineum.
    anterior
  207. the _________ ________ contains the root of the scrotum and penis in males and the external genitalia in females.
    urogenital triangle
  208. __________ muscle of the pelvic floor can be torn in childbirth. (which is the most medial part of the levator ani)
    Pubococcygeus
  209. the Internal _______ arterior (anterior division) supplies the viscera and perineum with blood.
    illiac
  210. Internal _________ artery is another branch off of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It is the primary blood supply to the perineum, supplying the muscles and skin of the perineum and the erectile bodies.
    pudendal
  211. Hemorrhoids—There are two different types of hemorrhoids. __________ hemorrhoids occur due to a prolapse of the rectal mucosa around the internal venous plexus. Because these occur superior to the pectinate line, there is less pain associated with them.
    internal
  212. __________ hemorrhoids are blood clots of the external venus plexus that are covered by skin. Because this type occurs inferior to the pectinate line, they are more painful b/c of the somatic innervation here.
    external
  213. __________ are painful swollen veins in lower portion of anus.________

    hemorrhoids occur just inside the anus, at the beginning of the rectum.
    ________ hemorrhoids occur at the anal opening and may hang outside the anus.
    hemorrhoids

    external and internal
  214. The ________ (isoreactal) fosse is filled w/fat & subcutaneous tissue; allows for anal canal to expand during passing of feces
    ischioanal
  215. the ________ ________ or tendinous center of the perineum, is a median, fibromuscular node situated at the convergence of several muscles, including the levator ani and the exteal anal sphincter. may be injured during parturition.
    perinal body
  216. celic trunk gives rise to - _______ artery, _________, ________,
    _________ ________(near the stomach)
    • splenic artery, common heptic,
    • left gastri
  217. The left bronchial arteries are usually two in number, and arise from the _______ aorta.
    thoracic
  218. the right broncial artery, arises from the 1st _______ intercostal, or from the upper _______ broncial artery.
    aortic

    left
  219. the _______ pleura innervated by intercostals & phrenic nerves. is it sensitive to pain?
    • Parietal
    • yes
  220. the sternum bounds the the heart __________.
    anteriorly
  221. the SVC is the direct venous drainage of the ________ wall (A&M pg 67-68)
    Thoracic wall
  222. a thrombus/thrombi is another term for _______ _______
    •blood clotting
  223. 35.In relationship to blood vessels the term ________ refers to communications between multiple branches of arteries providing numerous detours for blood flow in case of obstruction, etc.
    antasomose
  224. the importance of the anastomosis between the superior and inferior
    epigastric blood vessels is that they both can supply the __________
    region with blood
    abdominus
  225. ____________( of the nervous system) is normal function & energy conservation ________, part of the autonomic system comprises the preganglionic fibers that issue from the brain stem (cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X, XI) and sacral part of the spinal cord (segments S2,3 or S3,4
    • parasympathatic
    • cranial sacral
  226. _________ is “fight or flight” or thoracolumbar, part of the autonomic system comprises the preganglionic fibers that issue from the _________ and upper lumbar levels of the spinal cord
    • Sympathetic
    • thoracic
  227. _______ is the endocrine gland in the thorax
    thalamus
  228. *are considered endocrine function due to special cells.*
    37.Name the endocrine organ(s) that are found in the thorax, in the abdomen, and in the pelvis.
    the*_________(gastrin), *__________(secretion), __________, _________ and, __________ are endocrine organs that are found in abdomen.
    • stomach
    • duodenum
    • kidney,
    • adreneal
    • pancreas -
  229. the _______ and _________ are the endocrine glands in the pelvis
    ovaries and testies
  230. ___________ is a band-like skin area supplied by the sensory fibers of a single dorsal root through the dorsal and ventral rami of its spinal nerve. ______ or more intercostal nerves in adjacent intercostals spaces must be damaged
    • dermatome
    • two
  231. __________ ________, ___________ , and _________ are the internal boundaries of the abdominal cavity
    • Abdominal walls, diaphragm, and pelvis
  232. anterior sheath is comprised of the aponeurosis of the _________ oblique and an _________ layer of the aponeurosis of __________ oblique
    • external
    • anterior
    • internal
  233. posterior sheath of the _________ layer of the _________ oblique and the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis muscle.
    • posterior
    • internal
  234. movment of bowls and flexing the trunk and moving it side to side are all functions of the _________ __________ muscles
    abdominal wall muscles
  235. __________, _______ ________, and _________ are main muscles of the posterior abdominal wall
    • • Psoas
    • • Quadratus Lumborum
    • • Iliacus
  236. ___________ _________ (t8)(the abdominal openings of the respiratory diaphragm )permits the IVC
    caval opening (foreamen)
  237. the abdominal openings of the respiratory diaphragm, the ________ _______ at T10, permits the ___________ and ________ trunk
    • esophageal hiatus
    • esophagus and vagal
  238. the abdominal opening of the respiratory diaphragm, the _____ ________ at T12, permits the _______, and the _______ vein, etc.
    • aortic hiatus
    • aorta
    • azygos
  239. contraction of the diaphram helps venous blood return in the _______ opening.
    caval
  240. the ____________ hiatus acts as a esophgeal spincter during contraction
    esophageal
  241. The cross-bar of the "H" is the porta hepatis, or hilus of the
    liver, which contains the _______ ducts and the branches of the _______
    vein and _______ artery.
    • heptic
    • portal
    • heptic
  242. left _________ ducts emerge from the liver and unite to form the __________ hepatic duct. This receives the cystic duct from the gallbladder and becomes the _________ bile duct (or choledochal duct; from Gk, chole, "bile"), which opens into the second part of the duodenum in common with or at least beside the pancreatic duc
    • heptic
    • common
    • common
  243. once the _______ vein and ________ artery blood has traversed the liver lobule via hepatic sinusoids, it is returned to the vena cava by the _______ veins (at least 3: right, middle and left).
    • portal
    • heptic
    • heptic
  244. A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the _________ __________ system.

    a Venous return that goes from one capillary bed to another WITHOUT intervening arteries
    heptic portal
  245. The portal venous system (heptic) is responsible for directing blood from parts of the _____________ tract to the ________.
    Substances absorbed in the small intestine travel first to the __________
    for processing before continuing to the heart. Not all of the gastrointestinal tract is part of this system. The system extends from about the lower portion of the esophagus to the upper part of the anal canal.
    It also includes venous drainage from the ______ and ________.
    • gastrointestinal
    • liver
    • liver

    spleen and pancreas
  246. The _______ _________ vein is a vein in the abdominal cavity that drains blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. It is usually formed by the confluence of the superior mesenteric and _______ veins, and also receives _______ from the inferior mesenteric, gastric, and cystic veins.
    • heptic portal
    • spleenic
    • blood
  247. Immediately before reaching the liver, the portal vein divides into
    right and left. It ramifies further, forming smaller venous branches
    and ultimately portal venules. Each portal venule courses alongside a
    hepatic arteriole and the two vessels form the vascular components of
    the ________ _______. These vessels ultimately empty into the hepatic sinusoids to supply blood to the liver.[1]
    portal triad
  248. Unlike most veins, the hepatic portal vein does not drain into the heart. Rather, it is part of a portal venous system that delivers venous blood into another _______ system, namely the hepatic __________
    of the liver.
    • capulary
    • sinusoids
  249. In carrying venous blood from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver, the hepatic portal vein accomplishes two tasks; namely,it supplies the liver with metabolic substrates and it ensures that substances ingested are first processed by the liver before reaching the systemic circulation. After draining into the liver ________, blood from the liver is drained by the _________ vein.
    • sinusoids
    • heptic
  250. right lobe of liver is _________
    larger
  251. the right lobe of the liver is larger and consists of __________ (portion), ______ lobe, and _______ lobe
    • right
    • caudate
    • quadrate
  252. the left lobe of the liver is smaller and and is seperated by the right lobe by the __________ ligament
    falciform
  253. the liver, the remenant of the _________ __________ vein of an embryo becomes the ligmentum teres of liver
    the left umbilical
  254. The bile, stored in the gallbladder, primarily breaks down what type of food materials?
    •Lipids (fats)
  255. 50.Be able to identify the divisions, sphincters, and lining of the stomach. (A&M Figure 2.15 A & B pg 145)
    • •Cardiac Region (where esophagus dumps in)
    • •Fundus (left dome of diaphragm)
    • •Body
    • •Pyloric Region
    • •Pyloric Sphincter (regulates food entering duodenum)
    • •Lesser & Greater curvatures
  256. Name the mesentery, which attaches from the lesser curvature of the stomach to the hilus of the liver? What three structures run in the free margin of this mesentery? (A&M pg 138-139)
    lesser omentum, portal triad
  257. What structure attaches to the greater curvature of the stomach? (A&M pg 138)

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