Pharmacology Manual

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kmariie
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Pharmacology Manual
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2013-08-13 19:35:26
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Pharmacology manual kmariie
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  1. ADENOSINE
    • (Adenocard)
    • antidysrhythmic agent
    • 1. Depresses automaticity in the SA node & Purkinje fibers
    • 2. Depresses AV node conduction
  2. ALBUTEROL SULFATE
    • (Proventil, Ventolin)
    • bronchodilator
    • 1. Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle by stimulatin beta2 receptors resulting in bronchodilation
    • 2. Reduces airway resistance by bronchodilation
  3. AMIODARONE HYDROCHLORIDE
    • (Cordarone, Pacerone)
    • antidysrhythmic agent, Class III
    • 1. Prolongs duration of the action potential and effective refractory period
    • 2. Slows the sinus rate through calcium channel blockade and beta-adrenergic blockade
    • 3. Slows conduction through the AV node
    • 4. Widens the QRS complex and prolongs the QT interval
    • 5. Vasodilation action can decrease cardiac workload
  4. AMYL NITRITE
    • cyanide antidote
    • 1. Converts hemoglobin to metheglobin, which binds to the cyanide to assist cyanide elimination
  5. ASPIRIN
    • (Acetylsalicylic acid=ASA)
    • anticoagulant
    • 1. Inhibits the aggregation (clumping) of platelets
    • 2. Prolongs bleeding time
  6. ATROPINE SULFATE
    • parasympathetic blocker/ anticholinergic/ vagolytic
    • 1.Inhibits parasympathetic stimulation by blocking acetylcholine receptors
    • 2. Decreases vagal tone resulting in increased heart rate and AV conduction
    • 3. Dilates bronchioles and decreases respiratory tract secretions
    • 4. Decreases gastrointestinal secretions
  7. CALCIUM CHLORIDE
    • (CaCl2)
    • inotropic agent (electrolyte)
    • 1. Increases myocardial contractility
    • 2. Actively competes with potassium at the heart and neuromuscular receptor sites
    • 3. Restores myocardial conduction in presence of hyperkalemia
  8. CHARCOAL
    • (Acta-Char, Insta-Char, CharcoAid, Actidose, Liqui-char)
    • chemical absorbent
    • 1. Inhibits gastrointestinal absorption of drugs and chemicals
  9. DEXTROSE ORAL PREPARATIONS
    • (Glucose paste/ Glucose gel/ Glucose solution)
    • hyperglycemic agent
    • 1. Provides an oral source of glucose rapidly utilized for cellular metabolism
  10. DEXTROSE 5% IV SOLUTION
    • (D5W)
    • hypotonic solution (crystalloid)
    • 1. Provides small amounts of glucose, which is rapidly utilized for cellular metabolism
    • 2. Supplies body water
  11. DEXTROSE 50% IN WATER
    • (D50W)
    • hyperglycemic agent (crystalloid)
    • 1. Provides an immediate source of glucose, which is rapidly utilized for cellular metabolism
  12. DIAZEPAM
    • (Valium)
    • anticonvulsant/ sedative/ muscle relaxant
    • 1. Anticonvulsant
    • 2. Depresses central, peripheral & autonomic nervous systems
    • 3. Depresses patient recall
  13. DIPHENHYDRAMINE
    • (Benadryl)
    • antihistamine
    • 1. Competes with histamine at receptor sites
    • 2. Reverses muscle spasm associated with dystonic reactions
  14. DOPAMINE
    • (Intropin)
    • sympathomimetic agent (catecholamine)
    • -Low Dose= 1-4 mcgm/kg/min
    • 1. Dilates renal and mesenteric arteries by stimulating dopaminergic receptors
    • 2. May decrease BP due to vasodilation
    • -Moderate Dose= 5-10 mcgm/kg/min
    • 1. Increases inotropy without increasing chronotropy
    • 2. Increases BP by stimulating beta1 receptors
    • -High Dose= >10-20 mcgm/kg/min
    • 1. Causes vasoconstriction by stimulating alpha receptors
    • 2. Increases inotropy & chronotropy by stimulating beta1 receptors
    • 3. Increases BP by stimulating alpha & beta1 receptors
  15. EPINEPHRINE HYDROCHLORIDE
    • (Adrenalin)
    • sympathomimetic agent (catecholamine)
    • 1. Increases CO due to increased inotropy, chronotropy, and AV conduction (dromotropy) (betaeffect)
    • 2. Increases systolic BP due to increased CO and vasoconstriction (beta1, alpha effect)
    • 3. Increases coronary perfusion during CPR by increasing aortic diastolic pressure (alpha effect)
    • 4. Prevents hypotension and loss of intravascular fluid in anaphylactic reactions by counteracting vasodilation and decreasing vascular permeability (alpha effect)
    • 5. Relaxes smooth muscles of the respiratory tract (betaeffect)
  16. FUROSEMIDE
    • (Lasix)
    • diuretic
    • 1. Increases urinary output inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium chloride in renal tubules
    • 2. Causes venous pooling due to vasodilation
  17. GLUCAGON
    • hyperglycemic agent 
    • 1. Elevates blood glucose by converting liver glycogen into glucose
    • 2. Positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart
    • 3. Relaxes smooth muscle
  18. LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE
    • (Xylocaine)
    • antidysrhythmic agent, Class IB
    • 1. Supresses ventricular dysrhythmias by: stabilizing the myocardial cell membrane, shortening the refractory period, suppression of automaticity of ectopic focuses
    • 2. Prolongs the refractory period in ischemic tissue
  19. MIDAZOLAM HYDROCHLORIDE
    • (Versed, Hypnovel)
    • anticonvulsant/ hypnotic/ sedative
    • 1. Depresses the CNS
    • 2. Relaxes skeletal muscles
    • 3. Decreases patient recall
  20. MORPHINE SULFATE
    • narcotic analgesic
    • 1. Alters pain perception and produces euphoria
    • 2. Depresses the CNS by interacting with opiate receptors in the brain
    • 3. Decreases myocardial oxygen demand by: decreasing preload by causing venous pooling due to peripheral vasodilation resulting in decreased venous return, decreasing afterload by causing peripheral vasodilation resulting in decreased systemic vascular resistance
  21. NALOXONE
    • (Narcan)
    • narcotic antagonist
    • 1. Reverses the respiratory depression and CNS sedation of narcotics by competing for opiate receptor sites in the brain
  22. NITROGLYCERIN SPRAY
    • (Nitrolingual)
    • vasodilator
    • 1. Dilates arterial and venous vessels resulting in venous pooling 
    • 2. Reduces preload and afterload resulting in decreased myocardial workload and reduced oxygen demand
    • 3. Dilates coronary vessels resulting in increased perfusion of the myocardium
    • 4. Relieves coronary vasospasm
  23. ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE
    • (Zofran)
    • antiemetic
    • 1. Blocks the serotonin receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the stomach and small intestines
  24. OXYGEN
    • gas
    • 1. Oxidizes glucose to provide energy at the cellular level
    • 2. Essential for normal metabolic function (aerobic metabolism) and energy production for nerves and muscles
  25. POTASSIUM CHLORIDE
    • (KCl)
    • electrolyte supplement
    • 1. Regulates nerve conduction and muscle contraction, especially cardiac
  26. PRALIDOXIME CHLORIDE
    • (2-PAM Cl, Protopam)
    • cholinesterase re-activator
    • 1. Blocks the effects of accumulated acetylcholine by breaking the bond between the nerve agent and the enzyme acetylcholinesterase
  27. RINGER'S LACTATE IV SOLUTION
    • isotonic solution (crystalloid)
    • 1. Replaces fluid and electrolytes lost from the intravascular and intracellular spaces
  28. SODIUM BICARBONATE
    • (Na HCO3)
    • alkalinizing agent (hydrogen ion buffer)
    • 1. Increases blood pH
    • 2. Combines with hydrogen ions to form carbonic acid 
    • 3. Decreases precipitation of myoglobin in renal tubules in Crush Syndrome
  29. SODIUM CHLORIDE 0.9% IV SOLUTION
    • (Normal Saline)
    • isotonic solution (crystalloid)
    • 1. Replaces fluid and electrolytes lost from the intravascular and intracellular spaces

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