Card Set Information

2013-08-13 20:34:55

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  1. bld flow
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    • 1. l vent      2. aorta     3. renal art            4. smller arteries     5. aff arteriole
    • 6. glomerulus    7. eff arteriole
    • 8. peritubular caps   9. smller veins (venules)     10. renal vein     11. inferior vena cava     12. r atrium
  2. urine flow
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    • 1. renal cortex/medulla: bowman's cap     2. prox convoluted tubule     3. descending tubule     4. loop of henle    5. ascend tube    6. distal conv tube    7. collecting duct    8. calyx    9. renal pelvis    10. ureter    11. bladder    12. urethra    13. urethral meatus
  3. adlosterone does what
    regulates na retention, h2o reabsorption, controls k excretion
  4. more aldosterone =
    incr bp
  5. what triggers release of aldosterone
  6. aldosterone cycle 6
    low bp -->Renin-->angiotensin-->aldosterone-->na/h2o reabs & K exreted-->bp/vol increases
  7. antidiuretic hormone adh 
    released if...
    low h2o intake/ h2o loss
  8. adh required for
    water reabsorption and urine concentration
  9. adh released by
    posterior pit gland
  10. why does adh make 
    distal conv. tubes and collecting ducts
    more permeable to h2o
    allows to be reabsorbed into circulation to incr bld vol and bp
  11. adh cycle 4
    bp/bld vol low-->adh-->h2o reabsorbed-->bp/bld vol increased
  12. normal gfr
    glomerular filtration rate
    125 ml/min (180 L qd)
  13. normal gfr urinary output
    1.5 l qd
  14. what is gfr
    rate of filtration of fluid and waste from bld stream
  15. normal specific gravity
  16. norm pH
  17. norm rbc
  18. norm wbc
  19. casts norm
  20. best test for kidney function
    Creatinine Clearance
  21. Normal CR
    • serum: 0.5 - 1.5 mg/dl (incr for men)
    • urine: 85-135 ml/min
  22. stress
    wkness of pelvic floor muscles causing urine to leak w any incr in intraabdominal pressure
  23. urge
    muscle over activity causes an abrupt, strong desire to void and inability to hold urine
  24. overflow
    obstruction causes too much urine in bladder, putting pressure on urethra causing constant dribbling
  25. functional
    no urinary tract abnormality; dementia - forget to go
  26. neurogenic
    loss of innervation d/t trauma, neuro probs, or spinal cord lesion/tumor
  27. partial neurogenic
    can massage bladder to urinate (Crede's maneuver
  28. complete neurogenic
    may need cystostomy to drain bladder
  29. diet considerations
    risk for renal calculi
    no spinach, rhubarbs, swiss chard, cocoa, beets, wheat germ, pecans, peanuts, okra, choc, lime peel, TEA
  30. most common surgical tx bph
  31. turp is
    transurethral resection of prostate-->stent placement and laser ablation

    cystoscope and use of laser to shrink/destroy prostate tissue.
  32. bph tx
    • after operation
    • cont bladder irrigation w nss usually ordered to remove clotted bld from bladder and ensure urniary drainage; 3-way cath
  33. bladder ca
    • more common in men aged 50-70
    • smokers double risk
    • occupational exposure
  34. brickers loop
    ileal conduit
  35. uti med
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    • Macrobid
    • Pyridium
  36. nephrosis
    4 s/s
    • proteinuria
    • hypoalbuminemia
    • severe edema
    • hyperlipidemia
  37. glomerulonephritis
    brights disease
  38. stages of arf
    • oliguric stage
    • diuretic stage
    • recovery stage
    • uremic fetor
  39. K and Na
    Ca and P 
    work in conjunction
    • k incr = hyperkalemia
    • na decr = hyponatremia
    • ca decr = hypocalcemia
    • p incr = hyperphosphatemia
  40. ca decr = hypocalcemic
    causes = =
  41. dialysis
    only way to rid bd of wastes, excess fluid, and lytes
  42. lifeline
    renal transplant
    • fistula
    • graft
    • no bp in arm or tight clothes
  43. detrol/vesicare/ditropan
    • used for overactive bladder; hot as hare, dry as a bone, red as a beet, blind as a bat.
    • anti-cholinergic
  44. avodart
    manage sx of bph; vol of ejaculate may be low but no decr in sex func. pregnant or may be avoid mens semen taking med
  45. flomax
    used to incr urine flow, relaxes bph; change positions slowly r/t ortho hypo
  46. cipro/levaquin
    • used for uti; monitor for anaphylaxis
    • adults only
  47. bactrim ds
    uri; assess allergies to sulfa; use sunscreen, incr fluids r/t renal crystals
  48. renagel/phoslo
    phosphate binders used w hypocalcemia r/t renal fail; assess for gi s/e and monitor serum levels
  49. nephrovite
    multivitamin w no minerals, b-comp and c only, used in dialysis pts, monitor for anaph
  50. epogen/procrit/aranesp
    • stimulates red bld cell production 
    • ha/bone pain means its working
    • monitor for seizures
  51. niferex
    • anemia
    • stools dark, monitor cbc
    • use straw w po
    • ztrack w im
    • avoid coffee, tea, dairy, eggs
    • oj incr obsorption