Chapter 3 AP Gov Vocab.txt

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Chapter 3 AP Gov Vocab.txt
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2013-08-14 00:09:10
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Government Vocab
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Government By the People Chapter 3 Vocab
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  1. Federalism
    a constitutional arrangement in which power is distributed between a central government and subdivisional governments, called states in the United States. The national and the subdivisional governments both exercise direct authority over individuals
  2. Dual Federalism
    federal government has power over foreign policy and national defense while the state government have power over everything else. The Supreme Court acts as an umpire between the two.
  3. Cooperative Federalism
    all levels of the government work together to provide goods and services to the people
  4. Marble cake Federalism
    mixed set of responsibilities in which all levels of government are engaged in a variety of issues and programs with fixed divisions between layers or levels of government
  5. Competitive Federalism
    federal, state and local governments competing with each other to see which government is best for the people
  6. Permissive Federalism
    the statesÂ’ rights rest on the permission of the federal government
  7. New Federalism
    the power of the federal government is limited in favor of the broad powers reserved to the states (strict construction)
  8. Unitary system
    a constitutional arrangement that concentrates power in a central government
  9. Confederation
    a constitutional arrangement in which sovereign nations or states, by compact, create a central government but carefully limit its power and do not give it direct authority over individuals
  10. Delegated Powers
    powers given explicitly to the national government and listed in the Constitution
  11. Implied Powers
    Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its function
  12. Delegated Powers
    powers given explicitly to the national government and listed in the Constitution
  13. Implied Powers
    Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its function
  14. Necessary and Proper Clause
    Article I, Section 8, Clause 3, states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
  15. Express powers
    powers that the constitution specifically grants to one of the branches of the national government
  16. Inherent powers
    the power of the national government in foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government
  17. Commerce Clause
    Article I, Section 8, Clause 1 that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations
  18. Federal Mandate
    a requirement that federal government imposes as a condition for receiving federal funds
  19. Reserve Powers
    all powers not specifically delegated to the national government by the Constitution as seen in the 10th Amendment
  20. Concurrent powers
    powers that the Constitution gives to both the national and state government, such as the power to levy taxes
  21. Full Faith and Credit Clause
    Article IV, Section requires each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid
  22. Extradition
    the legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed
  23. Interstate compact
    an agreement among two or more states. Congress must approve most such agreements
  24. McCulloch v. Maryland
    The United States opened a national bank, but Maryland did not like it, so they taxes the bank $10,000 to operate in Maryland. McCulloch, in charge of the bank sued them. They court ruled that no state can tax a national instrument like the bank.
  25. National Supremacy
    a constitutional doctrine that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government prevail
  26. Preemption
    the right of a federal law or regulation to preclude enforcement of a state or local law or regulation
  27. Centralists
    • people who favor national action over action at the state and local levels
    • Loose constructionists, National government over state government
  28. Decentralists
    • people who favor state or local action rather than national action
    • Strict constructionists, state government over national government
  29. Categorical-Formula Grants
    Grants for specific purposes. Local governments must use some of their own money. Congress regulates spending. Ex: Medicaid
  30. Project Grants
    grants given out by application Ex: Universities
  31. Block Grants
    Grants for prescribed activities Ex: Welfare, social services. States have flexibility with spending.
  32. Direct Orders
    orders that states must comply with
  33. Cross-Cutting Requirements
    rules that apply to all federal grants
  34. Crossover Sanctions
    the use of federal money in one program to influence state and local policy in another. Cutting funding to a state if they do not adopt certain policies
  35. Total and partial Preemption
    When the federal government requires states to have certain programs with little to no funding. If they do not have the program, the federal government runs the programs in the state.
  36. Devolution Revolution
    the effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states
  37. States' Rights
    Powers expressly or implicitly reserved to the states

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