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Response Rate
The number of respondents divided by the number of surveys sent out.

Scientific Method
Asking questions, doing studies, collecting evidence, analyzing the evidence, and making conclusions

Population
The group of individuals that you wish to study in order to answer your research question

Sample
Select a small number of individuals from the population, study those individuals, and use that information to draw conclusions about the whole population.

Random Sample
Gives every member of the population an equal chance of being selected, and it uses some mechanism of chance to choose them.

Bias
A systematic favoritism that is present in the data collection process, resulting in lopsided misleading results
  In the way the sample is selected
  in the way the data are collected

Data
The actual measurements that you get through your study {Singular is datum}
  Numerical Data
  Categorical Data {Qualitative Data}

Statistic
A number that summarizes the datta collected from a sample

Census
Collect data from the entire population

Parameter
The number from the summary of all the census information

Mean
The sum of all numbers divided by te total number of numbers
{Average}

Median
The center of a numerical data set. The point at which there are equal number of data points whose values lie above and blow the median value

Standard Deviation
A measurement of the variability {or spread} among the numbers in a data set.
A standard {typical} amount of deviation {distance} from the average {or mean}.
The average distance from the mean
 n = number of values in dataset
 = the average of all the values
 x = each value in the data set

Empirical Rule
95% of the data will fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean

Percentile
The percentage of values in the data set that fall below that certain score.
90^{th }percentile means 90% of the people scored lower than you did

Ratio
A fraction that divides two quantities
300 girls and 200 boys is a ratio of 3:2

Rate
A ratio that reflects some quantity per a certain unit
 a car goes 60 miles per hour
 burglary rate is 3 per 1,000 homes

Percentatge
A number between 0 and 100 that reflects a portion of the whole

Percent increase
increase from 50 to 60
 (60  50)÷50
 10÷50 = 0.20 or 20%

Percent of whole
 The #1 comes up 468 times out of 4,839
 The #2 comes up 513 times out of 4,839
The difference in the number of times each number is drawn:
 513468= 45
 45÷4,839= 0.009 { of 1%}

Relative Standing
How an individual data value compares to the rest of the group.
Determined by percentiles


Probablility of an Outcome
The percentage of times tat the outcome is expected to happen.
The number of ways that the outcome can happen ÷ the total number of possible outcomes.
Rolling a 1 on a dice = 1 out of 6 or 16.7%

Central Limit Theorem
The distribution of all sample means (or proportions) is normal as long as the sample sizes are large enough

Sample Error
Measures the variability of a sample means
Sample error = Standard Deviation

Sampling Distribution
A listing of all the values that a sample mean can take on and how often those values can occur

Margin of Error
 The number of standard errors added or subtracted


