The West

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The West
2013-08-14 18:13:11

Chapters 23-29 Key Terms
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  1. Allies
    DuringWWI, the states allied against the Central Powers of Germany andAustria-Hungary.  During WWII, the statesallied against the regimes of Nazi Germany, fascist Italy and imperial Japan
  2. Anarchism
    Ideology that views the state as unnecessary and repressive and rejects participation in parliamentary politics in favor of direct, usually violent, action
  3. Anticlericalism
    Opposition to the political influence of the Roman Catholic Church
  4. Appeasement
    British diplomatic and financial efforts to stabilize Germany in the 1920s and 30s and so avoid a second world war.
  5. Balfour Declaration
    – Declaration of 1917 that affirmed British support of a Jewish state in Palestine
  6. Berlin Conference
  7. Berlin Wall
    Constructed by the East German government, the wall physically cut the city of Berlin in two and prevented East German citizens from access to West Germany; stood from 1961 to 1989.
  8. Bretton Woods Agreement
    Agreement signed in 1944 that established the post-WWII economic framework in which the U.S. dollar servd as the world’s reserve currency
  9. Big Three
    Termapplied to the British Soviet, and U.S. leaders during the WWI until 1945,Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt, by the summer of 1945, Atlee, Stalin, andTruman
  10. Blitzkrieg
    – “lightning war”  offensive military tactic making use of airplanes, tanks, and motorized infantry to punch through enemy defenses and secure key territory.  First demonstrated by the German army in WWII.
  11. Bolsheviks
    Minority group of Russian socialists, headed by Lenin, who espoused an immediate transition to a socialist state.  It became the Communist Party in the Soviet Union
  12. Brinkmanship
    Style of Cold War confrontation in which each superpower endeavored to convince the other that it was willing to wage nuclear war.
  13. Central Powers
    Germany, Austria-Hungary in WWI.
  14. Christian Democracy,Christian Democratic parties
    Conservative and confessionally based (Roman Catholic) political parties that dominated much of western European politics after WWII.
  15. Civil society
    Public organizations and activities separate from the state, commerce, or the family that help create community life (935)
  16. Cold War
    892 Struggle for global supremacy between the United States and the Soviet Union, waged from the end of WWII until 1990.
  17. Collectivization
    840 the replacement of private and village famrs with large cooperative agricultural enterprises run by state-employed managers.  Key part of Stalin’s plans for modernizing the Soviet economy and destroying peasant opposition to communist rule.
  18. Common Market
    Originally comprising West Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Lexumbourg, and the Netherlands, the Common Market was formed in 1957 to integrate its members economic structures and so foster both economic prosperity and internation peace.  Also called the European Economic Community, evolved into EU.  917
  19. Containment
    Cold War policy of blocking communist expansion; inaugurated by the Truman Doctrine in 1947
  20. Corporatism
    The practice by which committees (or corporations) made up of representatives of workers, employers, and the state direct the economy 834
  21. Cubism
    763Modernist artistic movement of the early 20th century thatemphasized the fragmentation of human perception through visual experimentswith geometric forms.
  22. Darwinian Theory ofEvolution
    753Scientific theory associated with nineteenth-century scientist Charles Darwinthat highlights the role of variation and antural selection in the evolution ofspecies
  23. Decolonization
    904 The retreat of Western powers from their imperial territories
  24. De-stalinization
    912 Nikita Khrushchev’s effort to decentralize political and economic control in the Soviet Union after 1956
  25. Détente
    930 During the 1970s, a period of lessened Cold War hostilities and greater reliance on negotiation and compromise.
  26. Dreyfus Affair
    The trials of Captain Alfred Dreyfus on treason charges dominated French political life in the decade after 1894 and revealed fundamental divisions in French society
  27. Ethnic cleansing
    948 A term introduced during the wars in Yogoslavia in the 1990s, the systematic use of murder, rap, and violence by one ethnic group against members o other ethnic groups in order to establish control over a territory.
  28. Eugenics
    – 832 The effort to improve the physical and intellectual capacities of the population by encouraging individuals with desirable traits to reproduce and/or by discouraging those individuals designated a “undesirable” from reproducing.
  29. Euro-Islam
    956 The identity and beliefsystem being forged by European Muslims who argue that Islam does notcontradict or reject European values
  30. European Economic Community(EEC)
    917 Originally comprising West Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, the EEC was formed in 1957 to integrate its members’ economic structures and so foster both economic prosperity and international peace.  Also called the Common Market.
  31. European Union
    949 a successor organization to the EEC, the effort to integrate European political, economic, cultural, and military structures and policies.
  32. Existentialism
    822 Twentieth century philosophy that emerged in the interwar era and influence many thinkers and artists after WWI.  Existentialism emphasizes individual freedom in a world devoid of meaning or coherence.
  33. Expressionism
    763 Modernist artistic movement of the early twentieth century that used bold colors and experimental forms to express emotional realities.
  34. Fascism
    20th century political ideology that rejected the existing alternatives of conservatism, communism, socialism, and liberalism.  Fascists stressed the authoritarian power of the state, the efficacy of violent action, the need to build a national community, and the use of new technologies of influence and control 833
  35. Feminist movement
    AnInternational movement that emerged in the second half of the 19thcentury and demanded broader political legal and economic rights for women
  36. Final Solutions
    879 Nazi term for the effort tomurder every Jew in Europe during WWII
  37. Fin-de-siècle
    – French term for the turn of the century, used to refer to the cultural crisis of the late 19th century 757
  38. Firestorm
  39. Fourteen Points
    814 The principles outlined by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson as the basis for a new world order after WWI
  40. Gaullism
    923 The political ideology associated with 20th century French political leader Charles DeGaulle.  Gaullism combined the advocacy of a stron, centralized state with social conservatism
  41. General strike
    Every worker goes on strike to disrupt the capitalist economy and lead to a working class revolution.
  42. General strike.
    Every worker goes on strike to disrupt the capitalist economy and lead to a working class revolution.
  43. Genocide
    807The murder of an entire people
  44. German-SovietNon-Aggression Pact
    – 859 Signed by Stalin and Hitler in 1939 the agreement publicly pledged Germany and the Soviet Union not to attack each other and secretly divided up Poland and the Baltic states between the two powers.
  45. Glasnost
    937 Loosely translated as openness or honesty; Gorbachev’s effort after 1985 to break with the secrecy that had characterized Soviet political life
  46. Globalization
    964 The process by which global systems of production, distribution, and communication link together the peoples of the world.
  47. Great depression
    Calamitous drop in prices, reduction in trade, and rise in unemployment that devastated the global economy in 1929
  48. Great purge
    842 Period of mass arrests and executions particularly aimed at Communist Party members.  Lasting from 1934 to 1939 the Great Purge enabled Joseph Stalin to consolidate the one-man rule over the Soviet Union.
  49. Green politics
    932 A new style of politics and set of political ideas resulting from the confluence of environmentalism, feminism, and anti-nuclear protests of the 1970s.
  50. Helsinki accords -
  51. Holocaust
    877 Hitler’s effort to murder all the Jews in Europe during WWII
  52. Hyperinflation
    – 827 Catastrophic price increases and currency devaluation, such as that which occurred in Germany in 1923
  53. Iron Curtain
    892 Metaphor for the Cold War devision of Europe after WWII
  54. Islamism
    Islamicradicalism or jihadism.  The ideologythat insists that Islam demands a rejection of Western values and that violencein this struggle against the West is justified
  55. Jim Crow
    777Series of laws mandating racial segregation through the American South
  56. Keynesian economics
    846Economic theories associated with the British economist John Maynard Keynesthat advocate using the power of democratic state to ensure economic prosperity
  57. League of Nations
    814 Association of states set up after WWI to resolve international conflicts through open and peaceful negotiation.
  58. Lend-Lease Act
    869 Passed in March 1941 the act gave Britain access to U.S. industrial products during WWII, with payment postponed for the duration of the war.
  59. Lustration
  60. Marshall Plan
    896 The use of U.S. economic aid to restore stability to Europe after WWII and so undercut the appeal of communist ideology.
  61. Mass Politics
    – A political culture characterized by the participation of non-elites.
  62. Modernism, modernistmovement
    757Term applied to artistic and literary movements from the late 19thcentury through the 1950s.  Modernistssought to create new aesthetic forms and values.
  63. Munich Agreement
    859The agreement in 1939 between the governments of Nazi Germany, Britain, andFrance that granted Germany sovereignty over the Sudetenland; part of theeffort to appease the Nazi government and avoid a second total war in Europe
  64. Nationalist-racist politics
    Politicalgroups that form out of race rather than economic status to unify thenation.  Usually people with basiceducation from Eastern Europe
  65. NATO
  66. Nazism
    Twentieth-centurypolitical ideology associated with hitler that adoped many fascist ideas butwith a central focus on racism and particularly anti-Semitism.
  67. New conservatism
    932Political ideology that emerged at the end of the 1970s combining the freemarket approach of 19th century liberalism with social conservatism
  68. New Economic Policy
    824 Lenin’s economic turnaround in 1921 that allowed and even encouraged small private businesses and farms in the Soviet Union.
  69. New feminism
    931Reemergence of the feminist movement in the 1970s
  70. New Imperialism
    766The third phase of modern European imperialism European imperialism, thatoccurred in the late 19th century and early 20th centuryand extended Western control over almost all of Africa and much of Asia
  71. New Left
    926Leftwing political and cultural movement that emerged in the late 1950s andearly 1960s, sought to develop a form of socialism that rejected theover-centralization, authoritarianism and inhumanity of Stalinism.
  72. 793The area between the combatants’ trenches on the Western Front during WWI
    793The area between the combatants’ trenches on the Western Front during WWI
  73. Nuremberg trials
    874Post World War II trials of members of the Nazi Party and German military,conducted by an international tribunal
  74. Pan-Arabism
    849Nationalist ideology that called for the political unification of all Arabs,regardless of religious affiliation
  75. Papal Infallibility
    765The doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church proclaimed at the First VaticanCouncil in 1870 that the pope could not err when making solemn declarationregarding faith or morals.
  76. Perestroika
    939Loosely translated as “restricting:” Gorbachev’s effort to decentralize,reform, and thereby strengthen Soviet economic and political structures
  77. Pogrom
    Anorganized and often officially encouraged riot or attack to persecute aparticular ethnic or religious group, especially associated with easternEuropean attacks against Jews.
  78. Political Nation
    thosewith a vote in political affairs who participated in the political process orwho voiced political options
  79. Pop art
    920 Effort by artists in the 1950s and 1960s both to utilize and to critique the material plenty of post-WWII popular culture
  80. Popular front
    846 A political coalitions of liberals,socialists, and communists to defeat fascist and racist-nationalist politicalrivals.
  81. Positivism
    692 The philosophy developed by August Comte in the 19th century according to which human society passed through a series of stages
  82. Postindustrial society
    – 962 A service rather thanmanufacturing based economy characterized by an emphasis on marketing andinformation and by a proliferation of communications technologies
  83. Postmodernism
    957 Umbrella terms covering a variety of arstici styles and intellectual theories and practices; in general a rejection of a single universal Western style of modernity
  84. Potsdam Conference
    895the meeting in July 1945 of the Allied leaders of Britain, the Soviet Union,and the United States in the German city of Potsdam.
  85. Reinsurance Treaty
    787Treaty of 1887 in which the governments of Germany and Russia agreed to remainneutral if either was attacked.
  86. Reparations
    814Payments imposed upon Germany after WWI by the Versailles Treaty to cover thecosts of the war.
  87. Rome-Berlin Axis
    859 Alliance between Benito Mussolini’s Italy and Hitler’s Germany formed in 1936
  88. Schlieffen Plan –
    788 Germany military plan devised in 1905 that called for a sweeping attack on France through Belgium and the Netherlands.
  89. Scramble for Africa
    The frenzied imposition of European control over most of Africa that occurred between 1870 and 1914.
  90. Second IndustrialRevolution
    A new phase in the industrialization of the processes of production and consumption, underway in Europe in the 1870s
  91. Social Darwinism
    755 The late 19th century application of the theory of evolution to entire human societies
  92. Social democracy
    843, 887, Political system in which a democratically elected parliamentary government endeavors to ensure a decent standard of living for its citizens through both economic regulation and the maintenance of a welfare state.
  93. Socialist revisionism
    The belief that an equal society can be built through participation in parliamentary politics rather than through violent revolution
  94. Solidarity
    935 Trade union and political party in Poland that led an unsuccessful effort to reform the Polish communist state in 1981; survived to lead Poland’s first non-communist government since WWII in 1989.
  95. Soviets
    – 808 Workers’ and soldiers’ councils formed in Russia during the Revolution of 1917
  96. Stagflation
    930 Term coined in the 1970s to describe an economy troubled by both high inflation and high unemployment rates.
  97. Structuralism
    920Influential post-WWII social theory that explored the common structures oflanguage and thought.
  98. Suffragettes
    Feministsmovement that emerged in Britain in the early 20th century.  Unlike the suffragists, who sought to achievethe national vote for women through rational persuasion, the suffragettesadopted the tactics of violent protests.
  99. Suffragists
    Feministswho sought to achieve the national vote for women through rational persuasionand parliamentary politics
  100. Syndicalism
    Ideologyof the late 19th and 20th century that sought to achievea working class revolution through economic action particularly through masslabor strikes
  101. The Resistance -
  102. Theory of Relativity -
  103. Third Reich
    864Term for Adolf Hitler’s Germany, articulates the Nazi aim of extending Germanrule across Europe
  104. Third World
    909Term coined in 1955 to describe nations that did not alighn with either theSoviet Union or the United States; commonly used to describe the industriallyunderdeveloped nations.
  105. Total War
    784 A war that demands extensive state regulation of economic production, distribution, and consumption; and that blurs (or erases entirely) the distinction between civilian and soldier.
  106. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    797Treaty between Germany and Bolshevik-controlled Russia, signed in March 1918,that ceded to Germany all of Russia’s western territories.
  107. Triple Alliance
    787Defensive alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, signed in 1882.
  108. Truman doctrine
    896 Named after U.S. President Harry Truman, the doctrine that in 1947 inaugurated the Cold war policy of resisting the expansion of communist control.
  109. Vatican II
    922 Popular term for the Second Vatican Council that convened in 1963 and introduced a series of changes within the Roman Catholic Church.
  110. Versailles Treaty
    814 Treaty between Germany and the victorious Allies after WWI
  111. Vichy regime, Vichy France
    864Authoritarian state establish in France after defeat by the German army in 1940
  112. Wahhabism
    850 A religious reform and revival  movement  founded by Muhammad Adb al-Wabbah (1703-1787) in the 18th century to purify Islam by returning to a strict interpretation of the Sharia, or Islamic law.  Revived during the 1920s in Saudi Arabia.
  113. Warsaw Pact
    897Military alliance of the Soviet Union and its eastern European satellite statesin the Cold War era
  114. Weimar Republic
    825 The deomcractic German state contructed after defeat in WWI and destroyed by the Nazis in 1933
  115. Yalta Conference
    894 Meeting in 1945 of the leaders of the Allied states of Britain, the Soviet Unions, and the United States to devise plans for postwar Europe.
  116. Zionism
    Nationalist movement that emerged in the late 19th century and sought to establish a Jewish political state in Palestine (the Biblical Zion)