Music History Review

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Music History Review
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  1. The aristocratic composer-poets of northern France were called the _____.
    trouveres.
  2. What are trouveres?
    The aristocratic composer-poets from Northern France.
  3. Love was a main topic of secular song among all, excluding the ______.
    Golliards
  4. Who excluded love as a theme among song in early music?
    The golliards.
  5. Define: musica ficta
    Chromatic alterations employed to produce a more melodic line or to avoid sounding an augmented fourth
  6. What technique employed the use of chromatic alterations to produce a more melodic line, avoiding the sound of an augmented fourth?
    musica ficta
  7. Define: goliard songs
    latin songs dating from the late 10th - early 13th century associated with wandering students and clerics.
  8. How many strings did the vielle have?
    Five.
  9. Why did pleasurable, social, amateur music-making increase during the 15th and 16th century?
    The introduction of music printing led to a wider production of written music.
  10. In the 15th and 16th century, what was the result of more wide-spread printing of music?
    More amateur music-making was done for various social events.
  11. The most famous composer of the 15th century was ____.
    Guillaume du Fay
  12. Who was Guillaume du Fay?
    He was the most famous composer of the 15th century - his work was in manuscripts throughout Europe.
  13. The tenor part contains a borrowed melody in which genre of masses?
    Cantus firmus
  14. In cantus firmus masses, the borrowed melody is found where?
    The tenor
  15. Describe the music of Guillaume du Fay.
    His compositions blended musical characteristics from French, Italian, and English traditions - represented a new international style of composition.
  16. Who's music, of the 15th century, was a mixture of French, Italian, and English traditions?
    Guillaume du Fay.
  17. A plainsong mass gained coherence between parts of the Ordinary by employing what?
    Liturgically-appropriate, pre-existing chant, which corresponded with the text of each part.
  18. The cantus firmus mass usally derived its name from what?
    The borrowed melody.
  19. Borrowed melody in cantus-firmus masses usually had influence on?
    The name of the mass
  20. The cantus-firmus mass creates coherence between sections by doing what?
    Constructing each of the parts of the Ordinary around the same cantus firmus - normally placed in the tenor.
  21. Why did composers construct each of the parts of the Ordinary around the same cantus firmus?
    Because this created coherence between sections.
  22. Talk about paraphrase
    I don't know what they're talking about
  23. Who was one of the earliest composers to use a secular tune as a cantus?
    Guillaume du Fay
  24. Guillaume du Fay was the first to use a ____ as a cantus firmus.
    secular tune
  25. Beginning in the 15th century, this genre refers to a polyphonic setting of a Latin text other than a mass cycle.
    Motet.
  26. When did motets arrive in music history?
    15th century.
  27. What is a motet?
    A polyphonic setting of a Latin text other than a mass cycle.
  28. Who was Gilles de Binchois?
    He was a composer employed by Phillip the Good and highly regarded for his chanson compositions.
  29. Who was one of the finest chanson somposers?
    Gilles de Binchois
  30. Who employed Gilles de Binchois?
    Phillip the Good
  31. What genres did Gilles de Binchois compose?
    Chansons.
  32. What is a farburden?
    A type of English improvised polyphony with a plainchant accompanied by a voice a perfect fourth above it and a lower voice in parallel thirds below.
  33. How is a farburden constructed?
    Middle voice sings plainchant with an upper voice a fourth above and a lower voice singing in thirds below.
  34. What country did the genre of farburden originate?
    England.
  35. What is a motto mass?
    A mass which utilizes the same melodic motive in the beginning of each part.
  36. A mass which utilizes the same melodic motive in the beginning of each part of it is called a ___.
    Motto mass.
  37. Du Fay's "Missa se la Face ay Pale" borrows its cantus firmus from what?
    The ballade
  38. What is "Roman de Fauvel"?
    A 14th century allegorical narrative poem which used sattire to coment on corruption in politics and the church in France.
  39. What is the name of the 14th century allegorical narrative poem that used satire to comment on corruption in politics and the French church?
    "Roman de Fauvel"
  40. Who was the first single-composer of a mass?
    Guillame de Machaut
  41. What was the name of the first mass to be composed by a single composer (Guillame de Machaut)?
    "Messe de Nostre Dame"
  42. Name the composition of one of the earliest polyphonic settings of the Mass Ordinary and likely the first mass to be composed by a single composer - a composer by the name of Guillame de Machaut.
    "Messe de Nostre Dame"
  43. The shawm is closest to what instrument?
    Oboe
  44. What old instrument is close to the sound of a modern-day oboe?
    Shawm
  45. There are two types of organs - name them.
    Portative and positive.
  46. Portative and positive refer to two types of?
    Organs
  47. What were jongleurs?
    Traveling entertainers who juggled and sang.
  48. What is the term for a traveling entertainer who juggles and sings?
    Jongleurs
  49. What is a chansonnier?
    A book of songs
  50. A french book of songs was known as a?
    Chansonnier
  51. What is the Winchester Troper?
    The largest collection of notated organal voices.
  52. What is the largest collection of notated organal voices?
    Winchester Troper
  53. Which composer composed quadruplum, or organa for four voices?
    Perotinus
  54. What was Perotinus known for composing?
    Quadruplum - an organa for four voices.
  55. What is a quadruplum?
    An organa for four voices.
  56. What is the name of an organa for four voices, and who was famous for composing them?
    Quadruplum - famously composed by Perotinus.
  57. The medieval motet began as an elaboration of troping of which genre?
    Substitute clausalae
  58. Substitute clausalae was elaborated and formed which genre?
    Medieval motet
  59. What is troping in music?
    Elaborating of a musical genre
  60. What is discant style?
    A style of organum in which both voices move in modal rhythm
  61. Discant style refers to what genre of music?
    Organum
  62. A style of organum in which both voices move in modal rhythm is called ____.
    discant style.
  63. Describe the features of polyphonic conductus.
    • 1. Text was rhymed, metrical poetry
    • 2. A melisma called a cauda sometimes preceded or followed phrases. 
    • 3. The tenor voice had the same rhythmic speed as the upper voices
    • 4. It died out around 1250.
  64. When did polyphonic conductus die out?
    Around 1250.
  65. Which genre employed the use of a cauda?
    Polyphonic conductus.
  66. What is a cauda?
    Melisma that preceded or followed phrases, particularly in polyphonic conductus.
  67. Name a genre of the 12th-13th century who's text came from rhymed, metrical poetry.
    Polyphonic conductus
  68. Why is Johannes de Garlandia important?
    He developed a system for notation duration at Notre Dame in the 13th century.
  69. Who was attributed to creating a system of notation duration at Notre Dame in the 13th century?
    Johannes de Garlandia.
  70. Franco of Cologne had a treatise called "_______" in which relative durations were introduced by note shapes.
    "Ars cantus mensurabilis"
  71. Who made the treatise "Ars Cantus Mensurabilis"?
    Franco of Cologne.
  72. What is significant about the treatise "Ars Cantus Mensurabilis"?
    It introduced relative note durations. Created by Franco of Cologne.
  73. What is discant?
    Organum in which all of the voices sing in measured rhythm.
  74. What is the type of organum in which all voices sing in measured rhythm?
    Discant.
  75. Where was the center for polyphonic composition in the 13th century?
    Paris.
  76. Paris was know for being the center of what style of composition in the 13th century?
    Polyphonic composition
  77. Who was Anonymous IV?
    The writer who named two composers of the Notre Dame school
  78. Who was the writer who named two composers of the Notre Dame school?
    Anonymous IV
  79. What is a motet?
    Late medieval polyphonic genre which could have words in both French and Latin.
  80. What late medieval polyphonic genre could have words in both French and Latin?
    Motet.
  81. Motets came around in what period?
    Late medeival
  82. What features helped create English music of the 13th century?
    • 1. Voice exchange
    • 2. Canons
    • 3. Preference for 6/3 chords.
  83. Find out what the hell Ars Nova is all about.
    I don't really get it.
  84. Which feature of Ars Nova was most offensive to conservatives?
    Duple meter
  85. What was Roman de Fauvel?
    An allegorical story interspersed with Ars Nova music.
  86. What was important about the story of Roman de Fauvel?
    It was interspersed with Ars Nova music.
  87. Who was Philippe de Vitry?
    The French Composer who wrote the famous treatise "Ars Nova" which gave the name to the musical movement and style of the 14th century.
  88. Who created the treatise of "Ars Nova"?
    Phillipe de Vitry
  89. Ars Nova was the name given to what?
    The new musical movement and style of the 14th century. Created by Philippe de Vitry.
  90. Who composed isorhythmic motets, monophonic secular songs, and a first complete Mass Ordinary setting?
    Guillame de Machaut.
  91. Guillame de Machaut wrote what styles?
    Isorhythmic motets, monophonic secular songs, and the first complete Mass Ordinary setting.
  92. Who was Francesco Landini?
    Blind composer known for his ballate - even had a cadence named after him.
  93. Who was the blind composer known for his ballate and had a cadence named after him?
    Francesco Landini.
  94. Francesco Landini was famous for what style of music?
    Ballate
  95. What is a talea?
    The repeating rhythmic pattern of an isorythmic work.
  96. What is the repeating rhythmic pattern in an isorhythmic work?
    Talea
  97. Musical instruments of the 14th century were divided into high and low depending on what?
    Loudness and softness.
  98. What role did instrumental dynamics play in the 14th century?
    Instruments were categorized as high and low dynamics, not as much for high and low pitch.
  99. I don't know what Trecento composers are...
    What are they?
  100. Trecento composers did not use _____.
    Discant clausulae
  101. Trecento composers used which genres?
    Caccia, Madrgial, Ballata, and Rondeau
  102. What is the Squarcialupi Codex?
    One of the main sources of Italian Trecento music.
  103. What is one of the main sources of Italian Trecento music?
    The Squarcialupi Codex.
  104. What is a rota?
    A perpetual canon or round at the unison in English polyphony.
  105. In English polyphony, a perpetual canon or round at the unison is a ____.
    Rota.
  106. The Renaissance period is marked by an interest in _________.
    Ancient greek culture.
  107. Ancient greek culture played a role in which period?
    Renaissance
  108. Which centuries to we consider the Renaissance period?
    15th and 16th centuries.
  109. The 15th and 16th centuries are considered the ______.
    Renaissance Period.
  110. How did Renaissance painters achieve realistic effects?
    Perspective and treatment of light
  111. How did Renaissance composers imitate the painters of the time?
    • 1. Contrasting register shifts
    • 2. Clarity of structure through contrasts
    • 3. Focusing on a single tonal center
  112. True or false: Court chapels hired musicians for both sacred AND secular music!
    True
  113. Why were court chapels significant in music history?
    They hired musicians for both sacred and secular music.
  114. Italian Renaissance musicians were most likely trained where?
    France, the Netherlands, or Flanders
  115. In the Renaissance, musicians were generally trained in which countries?
    France, the Netherlands, or Flanders
  116. What role did France, the Netherlands, and Flanders play in Renaissance music?
    They were the main training centers for musicians of the time period.
  117. What is "temperament"?
    A system of tuning all pitches of a keyboard instrument to make thirds and sixths sounds correct.
  118. What is the term for the system of tuning all pitches of a keyboard instrument to make thirds and sixths sound better?
    Temperament
  119. When was "temperament" first utilized in music history?
    16th century
  120. Ancient Greeks thought that music was a social accomplishment - this idea transferred into which era?
    Renaissance period
  121. Music of the Renaissance Period was considered to be a social accomplishment - this thought came from the influence of which country?
    Ancient Greece
  122. Describe Renaissance musical ideas in regards to emotions.
    • 1. Renaissance musicians used many devices to try to sway emotions
    • 2. Magical properties of music from Ancient Greece were thought to apply to the Renaissance.
  123. Who was Heinrich Glareanus?
    The Swiss theorist who added four new modes to his book - Dodekachordan.
  124. Heinrich Glareanus added four new modes to his book, titled _____.
    "Dodekachordan"
  125. What is "Dodekachordan"?
    A book by Heinrich Glareanus in which four new modes were added.
  126. Who was Ottavio Petrucci?
    He was a composer famous for publishing music using a three-impression method.
  127. Who was famous for publishing music using a three-impression method?
    Ottavio Petrucci.
  128. Secular music in the Renaissance was composed by who?
    Musicians who also composed church music.
  129. What big social factor influenced Renaissance music?
    Europe's economic strength.
  130. Europe's economic strength in the Renaissance music did what?
    Affected the music-making of the time.
  131. Who was the primary audience for printed music during the Renaissance?
    Amateur musicians throughout Europe and the Americas.
  132. Amateur musicians throughout Europe and the Americas were the primary audience for what?
    Printed music.
  133. Music and art of the Renaissance shared which characteristic?
    An interest in the individual
  134. Aeolian and ionian modes were added by ____.
    Heinrich Glareanus in his book
  135. Which modes did Heinrich Glareanus add in his book?
    Aeolian and ionian.
  136. How did the Hundred Years' War influence music?
    English composers spent time in France and were influenced by them.
  137. Which war attributed to the French influence on English composers?
    The Hundred Years' War.
  138. What is the "contenance angloise"?
    English style of polyphony
  139. What is the fancy name for the English style of polyphony?
    The "contenance angloise"
  140. Describe the genre: cantilena
    Freely composed, homorhythmic piece
  141. What genre has homorhythmic, freely composed elements?
    Cantilena
  142. What is inside "The Old Hall" manuscript?
    Sacred polyphony, including works of Dunstable
  143. Dunstable's works of sacred polyphony are found in which manuscript?
    "The Old Hall" manuscript
  144. How did Du Fay spend his career?
    Traveling from court to court - including courts in England, France, Italy, and Spain.
  145. Describe the genre: fauxbourdon?
    Two composed voices with an improvised third voice, creating 6-3 chords.
  146. What genre consists of two composed voices with an improvised third voice, creating 6-3 chords?
    Fauxbourdon
  147. What was the first collection of polyphonic music printed entirely from moveable type?
    "Harmonice musices odhecaton" by Ottaviano Petrucci.
  148. How was Ottaviano Petrucci significant?
    He created "Harmonice musices odhecaton" - the first collection of polyphonic music printed entirely from moveable type.
  149. What is "Harmonice musices odhecaton"?
    The first collection of polyphonic music printed entirely from moveable type - by Ottaviano Petrucci.
  150. What is the name for the synthesis of compositional elements from English, French, and Italian madrigal traditions in the 15th century?
    International Style
  151. What is the "international style"?
    The synthesis of compositional elements from English, French, and Italian madrigal traditions in the 15th century.
  152. What was innovative about the Renaissance music that was not borrowed from Greek thought?
    Mean-tone temperament.
  153. Mean-tone temperament was an innovation in the _______ period.
    Renaissance.
  154. What is the "Cantigas de Santa Maria"?
    A collection of more than four hundred songs in Galician-Portugues in honor of the Virgin Mary, prepared in 1270 in Spain.
  155. The "Cantigas de Santa Maria" are in which language?
    Galician-Portuguese.
  156. The "Cantigas de Santa Maria" honors which iconic figure?
    The Virgin Mary
  157. What is the collection of more than four-hundred songs, written in Galicaian-Portuguese in honor of the Virgin Mary in 1270?
    Cantigas de Santa Maria
  158. When was the collection "Cantigas de Santa Maria" prepared?
    1270.
  159. What is "cantus firmus"?
    A term used for a pre-existing melody used in a new work in the late medieval/early Renaissance period.
  160. What is the term used for pre-existing melody used in a new work in late medieval/early Renaissance period?
    Cantus Firmus
  161. What is "hocketing"?
    Technique where two or more voices alternate in rapid succession, each resting while the other sings - developed in the 13th century and used in isorhythmic motets.
  162. Isorhythmic motets implemented which technique?
    Hocketing.
  163. What is the term for the technique where two or more voices alternate in rapid succession, each resting while the other sings, developed in the thirteenth century, used in isorhythmic motets?
    Hocketing
  164. Zarlino and Glareanus are responsible for what?
    Devising the new rules for counterpoint, to include the newly-developed preference for 3rds and 6ths in the late 15th and 16th century.
  165. The two theorists who devised new rules for counterpoints, to include the newly developed preference for 3rds and 6ths in the late 15th and 16th century were _____ and _____.
    Zarlino and Glareanus.
  166. Name the two predominant textures (features) of Renaissance music.
    Homophony and imitative counterpoint.
  167. Homophony and imitative counterpoint were two predominant textures in which era?
    Renaissance period
  168. What is "Ars Subtillor"?
    A continuation of "Ars Nova" made in the later part of the 14th century by Phillipus de Caserta.
  169. Why is Phillipus de Caserta important?
    He is an important representative of the "Ars Subtillor" style - a continuation of "Ars Nova".
  170. When was "Ars Subtillor" important?
    Late 14th century.
  171. Describe the features of "Ars Subtillor".
    • 1. Rhythmic complexity
    • 2. Use of contrasting meters in different voices
    • 3. Unusual notation format.
  172. What was the chief 16th-century keyboard genre in improvisatory style?
    Toccata
  173. What is "toccata"?
    Improvisatory keyboard style, very big in the 16th century.
  174. A carol contains which compositional feature?
    A burden
  175. The form which contains a "burden" is the _____.
    Carol
  176. By the 15th century, the word "motet" meant ____.
    Any polyphonic composition on a sacred Latin text other than the Ordinary of the Mass
  177. What is a "motet"?
    Polyphonic composition on a sacred Latin text.
  178. A mass in which all movements begin with the same motive is a _____.
    Motto mass.
  179. Motto masses are characterized by ____.
    Having all movements being with the same motive.
  180. Ockeghem spent most of his career in the service of ______.
    The Kings of France.
  181. Bass voice of late 15th century masses are characterized by _____.
    The range being a fourth lower from the middle voice.
  182. Define: "Imitation"
    A succession of imitated entrances.
  183. Josquin used what compositional technique?
    Imitation in paired voices
  184. Who was Luther's principal musical collaborator?
    Johann Walter
  185. Who was Johann Walter?
    Luther's principal musical collaborator.
  186. Define: contrafactum
    A piece in which a new text, usually sacred, is added to pre-existing music.
  187. What genre uses new sacred text and adds it to pre-existing music?
    Contrafactum
  188. Jean Calvin only allowed _____ at church services.
    Unaccompanied singing of psalms.
  189. What is the principal form of Lutheran church music?
    Chorale
  190. Chorales were the principal form of music in what setting?
    Lutheran Church
  191. What is the principal musical form of the Calvinist Church?
    Metrical psalm
  192. Metrical Psalms were the principal form of music in what setting?
    Calvinist Church
  193. What are the principal forms of music in Anglican Church?
    Madrigals and motets.
  194. Madrigals and motets were the principal form of music in what setting?
    Anglican Church
  195. Palestrina was famous in what country?
    Rome
  196. What was the main secular vernacular genre of sixteenth-century Spain?
    villancico
  197. What was "villancico"?
    The main secular vernacular genre of sixteenth-century Spain.
  198. How had Italian madrigals evolved by the middle of the 16th century?
    It was written for five or more voices
  199. Define: madrigalism
    The literal depiction of an individual word or phrase
  200. What is the literal depiction of an individual word or phrase?
    Madrigalism
  201. What is Musica Transalpina?
    A collection of Italian madrigals that had been translated into English.
  202. What is the famous collection of Italian Madrigals translated into English?
    Musica Transalpina.
  203. What is "The Triumphs of Oriana"?
    A collection of madrigals in honor of Queen Elizabeth.
  204. What is the name of the collection of madrigals made in honor of Queen Elizabeth?
    "The Triumphs of Oriana"
  205. Who is the famous lute song composer?
    John Dowland
  206. Who is John Dowland?
    Famous lute song composer.
  207. Define: consort
    any combination of instruments in a small group
  208. What is a combination of instruments in a small group?
    Consort
  209. Venice was famous for this type of motet:
    polychoral motet
  210. The polychoral motet was famous in what city?
    Venice
  211. When were the earliest notated chant-books created?
    9th century
  212. The main patrons for music in Italy during the Renaissance were who?
    The heads of small city-states and the church.
  213. What is the "Schola Cantorum"?
    A medieval Roman institution charged with training boys and men as church singers.
  214. What is the medieval Roman institution charged with training boys and men as church singers?
    Schola Cantorum
  215. Notker Balbulus is known for what compositional technique?
    Sequences
  216. Sequences were used as a compositional technique, made famous originially by who?
    Notker Balbulus
  217. Define: frottola
    Genre of folk-like homophonic secular song in Italy
  218. What is "The Divine Office"?
    A series of psalms and chants, performed eight times per day.
  219. What is the series of psalms and chants, performed eight times per day?
    "The Divine Office"
  220. Ars Subtilior was cultivated in which Papal court?
    Avignon
  221. The papal court of Avignon was attributed for cultivating which new type of music?
    Ars Subtilior
  222. What is the "Magnus Liber Organi"?
    A book of organum created by Leoninus.
  223. What is Leoninus famous for?
    Creating "Magnus Liber Organi", a book of organum.
  224. The performance of most chants begins with what?
    The priest or cantor singing the first few words
  225. What is liturgy?
    The prescribed texts and rites that collectively constitute the religious services of the church.
  226. What is the prescribed texts adn rites that collectively constitute the religious services of the church?
    Liturgy
  227. Why is Charlemagne important?
    He attempted to bring chant practices in the Frankish kingdom into the Roman Chant practices.
  228. Who attempted to bring chant practices of the Frankish kingdom into Roman chant practices?
    Charlemagne.
  229. What is the Italian genre derived from French songs?
    Canzona
  230. Define: canzona
    Italian genre derived from French songs.
  231. How did Josquin approach text setting?
    He gave a new melody to each new phrase to make it clear.
  232. Which composer was made famous for giving a new melody to each new phrase for the sake of clarity?
    Josquin
  233. Define: Goliards
    Students who sang secular songs in Latin
  234. What were the students who sang secular songs in Latin?
    Goliards
  235. Early 15th century English compositions were mostly:
    Polyphony on Latin texts
  236. Which country's main composition in the early 15th century was polyphony on Latin texts?
    England
  237. What do the letters "EUOUAE" indicate in chant books?
    The last vowels in the Lesser Doxology.
  238. The troubadours influenced secular song in which country?
    Germany
  239. Germany's secular song was influenced by what?
    The troubadours, however it was written in German.
  240. Look up gamut and musica ficta...
    What are they??
  241. What is "Bar form"?
    AAB
  242. AAB is considered what form?
    Bar form
  243. Define: cantilena
    A freely composed homorhythmic piece
  244. What is the genre that features freely composed homorhythms?
    Cantilena
  245. Early church leaders believed what about instrumental music?
    They thought it could evoke pagan practices and therefore should be suppressed.
  246. Where did Ambrosian chant originate?
    The city of Milan
  247. The chant tradition centered in the city of Milan is known as ________.
    Ambrosian chant.
  248. What is the keyboard instrument of the Renaissance?
    Clavichord
  249. The clavichord was the keyboard instrument of what period?
    Renaissance.
  250. Early madrigals would sometimes metaphorical for
    sexual matters
  251. Sexual matters were part of text themes in which genre of music?
    Early madrigals
  252. Fourth century worship services were performed how?
    Call and response - priests singing psalms, congregation singing responses.
  253. What was the main feature of "musique mesuree"?
    The artifical assignment of long and short values to vowel sounds.
  254. The artificial assignment of long and short values to vowel sounds were first developed in
    Musique mesuree
  255. Who were the "Concerto Delle Donne"?
    A group of women renown for their singing at noble courts.
  256. What is the name of the group of women renown for their singing at noble courts?
    Concerto Delle Donne
  257. Look up Ockeghem... I don't know
    I don't know.
  258. What is a property of the texts and music of the Proper of the Mass?
    They change according to the church calendar.
  259. What are the Worcester fragments?
    Sources of Latin-texted polyphony from the 13th century
  260. What was the main source of Latin-texted polyphony in the 13th century?
    Worcester Fragments
  261. Christian music takes most of its practices from?
    Jewish music practice.
  262. Jewish music practices heavily influenced ____.
    Christian music practices.
  263. How was dance music of the Renaissance organized?
    It had repeated sections of four measure phrases.
  264. Repeated sections of four-measure phrases were important in what type of music?
    Dance music of the Renaissance.
  265. How was love described in court songs?
    Usually as a man who loves an unattainable woman.
  266. Willaert and Zarlino believed that minor intervals, such as the minor third or sixth, represented what?
    Sweetness or grief
  267. Sweetness or grief were represented by which intervals, according to Willaert and Zarlino?
    Minor thirds and sixths.
  268. What is The Greater Perfect System?
    Consists of a series of tetrachords linked to forma  two-octave range of unstable pitches.
  269. What system consists of a series of tetrachords linked to form a two-octave range of unstable pitches?
    The Greater Perfect System.
  270. What did Martin Luther call his simplified order of service for smaller congregations?
    The German Mass
  271. The German Mass originated by whom?
    Martin Luther - used in simplified, smaller congregations.
  272. Who was the earliest known composer of Mesopotamia?
    Enheuanna
  273. Enheuanna was important because?
    She was the earliest known composer of Mesopotamia. She was a high priestess who composed hymns.
  274. Look up "Isaac" ... I don't know.
    I don't know.
  275. The frotolla gave way to what genre in the 16th century?
    Italian Madrigal
  276. The Italian madrigal was influenced heavily in the 16th century by what genre?
    Frottola
  277. Define: heterophony
    One person playing a melody with embellishment while others sing or play the original.
  278. What is the musical term for one person playing a melody with embellishment while others sing or play the original?
    Heterophony
  279. Describe Babylonian notations
    Although Babylonians had a form of notation, musicians most likely performed from memory, improvised, or used the notation as a starting point.
  280. Look up more on Josquin. I don't know.
    I don't know.
  281. Define: humanism
    The movement to embrace human knowledge
  282. What was the movement to embrace human knowledge?
    Humanism
  283. European cultures in antiquity left instruments made from?
    Bone
  284. Look up the form of a motet and how it's constructed. I don't know.
    I don't know.
  285. What is a duplum?
    The second voice from the bottom in a 13th century motet.
  286. Look up Orlando de Lasso
    Idk
  287. Earliest system of musical notation was from where?
    Babylonians
  288. Babylonians are credited with ____
    Earliest system of notation.
  289. Define: aulos
    Most popular ancient Greek wind instrument - used in celebrating Dionysus
  290. What is the most popular ancient greek wind instrument, used in celebrating Dionysus?
    Aulos
  291. The lyre is associated with which Greek God?
    Apollo
  292. Apollo is associated with which instrument, according to Ancient Greek mythology?
    The lyre
  293. Greek music was generally _____.
    Monophonic
  294. Monophonic music was present in which ancient civilization?
    Greece
  295. Gregorian chant originated from which two chant styles?
    Roman and Frankish chant styles
  296. Define: neumes
    In the earliest notations, these were signs indicating melodic shape above the text
  297. In the earliest notations of music, what were placed above the text to indicate melodic shape?
    Neumes
  298. Look up Guido de Arezzo. Idk
    Idk.
  299. Solesmes notation was created for what?
    Official chantbooks for monks, only used in the church.
  300. Who was Guido de Arezzo?
    He basically invented modern music theory - he created staff lines, letter names for the lines of the staff, and hexachordal theory.
  301. Who is attributed to creating staff lines, letter names, and hexachordal theory?
    Guido de Arezzo.
  302. In the 1st century, what genre of music was performed by a choir of Levites at the Temple of Jerusalem?
    Psalm
  303. Who was Boethius?
    A writer in the 6th century who compiled a compendium of Greek music theory (including modes).
  304. Who compiled a compendium of Greek music theory in the 6th century (including modes)?
    Boethius
  305. Define: plainsong
    unison accompanied song, particularly in a liturgical song to Latin text
  306. What is the genre that features a unison accompanied song, particularly in a liturgical song to Latin texts?
    Plainsong
  307. What are the "trivium" and "quadruvium"?
    Created by Martianus - a list of essential teaching skills. Trivium consists of the spoken word, quadruvium consists of math and music.
  308. Who created the trivium and quadruvium?
    Martianus
  309. What is important about Martianus?
    He created the trivium and quadruvium.
  310. What are the "authentic modes"?
    Odd numbered ones (1,3,5,7).
  311. The odd-numbered modes are called the?
    Authentic modes.
  312. What is the Guidonian hand?
    It was a teaching technique used to identify pitches on the system of hexachords.
  313. What is the teaching technique used for locating pitches on the system of hexachords?
    Guidonian hand.
  314. Define: cantillation
    The chanting of sacred texts
  315. What is the term for the chanting of sacred texts?
    Cantillation.
  316. Describe solesmes notation.
    4-line staff - with C or F clef. Pitch is still relative.
  317. What system of notation consists of pitch relativity, a four-line staff, and a C and F clef?
    Solesmes notation.
  318. Boethius described three divisions of music - what are they?
    • Musica mundana — music of the spheres/world
    • Musica humana — harmony of human body and spiritual harmony
    • Musica instrumentalis — instrumental music
  319. Three divisions of music are famously described by who?
    Boethius.
  320. What is solmization?
    Method of assigning syllables to steps in a scale. It is used to make it easier to sing whole tones and semitones in melodies. Created by Guido de Arezzo.
  321. What is the method of assigning syllables to steps in scale?
    Solmization - created by Guido de Arezzo.
  322. Who created Solmization?
    Guido de Arezzo.
  323. What is the process of changing hexachords in a chant?
    Mutation
  324. Define: mutation
    Singer's way of changing among 3 hexachords when learning a new chant
  325. Pope Marcellus Mass - what is it? Idk.
    Idk.

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